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Marianne (Marika) Ainley (nee Gosztonyi) 1937 - 2008 was born on December 4, 1937 in Budapest, Hungary. She started out her adult life as a chemist after receiving her diploma in industrial chemistry from Petrik Lajos Polytechnical College of Chemistry in Budapest in 1956. She immigrated to Sweden in 1956 to escape the unrest accompanying the failed Hungarian Revolution, and then to Montreal, Quebec in 1957.
In Montreal, she worked as a laboratory technician during which she studied aesthetics, music appreciation and literature at Sir George Williams University (now part of Concordia University) from 1961-1964, earning a bachelor's degree in English and French literature. In 1966, she became a research assistant at Loyola College (now part of Concordia) in the Chemistry department under Dr. Thomas Nogrady. She worked under Dr. Thomas Nogrady from 1966-1969 and 1973-1974, taking a hiatus for the birth of her son during which she developed her interest in birding and pottery. Between 1967 and 1969, she studied pottery under Grace Atkinson and Rai Nakashima at the Potter's Club in Montreal. She exhibited some of her pottery at the Potter's Club in the Montreal Studio Fair. In 1974, she became a laboratory instructor in the Chemistry Department at Loyola College where she worked until 1978.
In 1979, upon the recommendation of a colleague to look into the History of Science Program (Histoire et de sociopolitique des sciences) at the Universite de Montreal, Ainley applied and was accepted. While attending the Universite de Montréal, Ainley was employed as a research assistant in the History of Science Program at Concordia and completed Cornell University's certificate in ornithology. She graduated with a Master of Science in 1980 from the Institut d'histoire et de sociopolitique des sciences of the Universite de Montreal upon the completion of her thesis on the history of American ornithologists, "La professionnalisation de l'ornithologie Americaine, 1870-1979." Ainley continued her research in ornithology while completing her PhD at McGill University, graduating in 1985 upon the completion of her dissertation, "From Natural History to Avian Biology: Canadian Ornithology, 1860-1950."
Shortly after completing her PhD, Ainley received a grant to write a biography of zoologist William Rowan. In the same year, she applied for and received post-doctoral funding from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), which she spent at McGill studying the history of Canadian women in science. She also co-curated "the Bicentennial of J.J. Audubon" exhibition at McGill University. In 1986, she secured multi-year funding (from 1986-1988) as an independent scholar through the Women and Work Strategic Grants program for "Women and Scientific Work in Canada, I."
In 1988, she became a lecturer at the Simone de Beauvoir Institute at Concordia University and, in the following year, received her second Women and Work strategic grant for "Women and Scientific Work in Canada, II," which funded her research until 1992. In her first semester at the Simone de Beauvoir Institute, while developing a course on historical and contemporary perspectives of women, science and technology, she recognized a dearth of material on the subject and solicited a series of essays, which became "Despite the Odds: Essays on Canadian Women and Science." Ainley edited the book, published in 1990, and contributed a chapter and bibliography. In the same year, she became a visiting scholar in the women’s studies at Carleton University as well as a researcher for and curator of the "Canadian Achievements in Science" historical photograph exhibition at Concordia University. Upon returning to the Simone de Beauvoir Institute in 1991, she became the principal and a half-time associate professor of women’s studies. She began work as a co-investigator on another SSHRC funded project, "Critical Turning Points: Women Engineers Within and Outside the Profession," on women in the field of engineering in 1993. In the same year, she received a grant to publish her biography of William Rowan, entitled, "Restless Energy—A Biography of William Rowan, 1891-1957."
In 1995, Ainley accepted a position as a professor and the chair of the Women’s Studies Program at the University of Northern British Columbia, serving as chair until 1998 and as a professor until 2003. In 1999, Ainley became the president of the Canadian Women's Studies Association, of which she was a member since 1988. In 2000 and 2003, Ainley was a visiting professor at the Centre for Social Science Research at the Central Queensland University. In 2001, Ainley was a visiting scholar at Auckland University's Institute for the Study of Gender; she received associate professor emeritus status from the University of Concordia; and received the "Teaching as if the World Mattered" award from the Biology as if the World Mattered Research Group in Canada. In the same year, she received a SSHRC grant for her research project, "Re-explorations: new perspectives on gender, environment and the transfer of knowledge in 19th and 20th century Canada and Australia."
During her time at the University of Northern British Columbia, Ainley began her magnum opus, originally titled, "Overlooked Dimensions: Women and Scientific Work at Canadian Universities, 1884-1980." The book drew on her previous research, including research from her Women and Work SSHRC grants and "Critical Turning Points: Women Engineers Within and Outside the Profession," as well as oral history projects completed by other researchers and institutions. The book provides an overview of the history of women and scientific work at Canadian universities. It was posthumously published as Creating Complicated Lives: Women and Science at English-Canadian Universities, 1880-1980 by the McGill-Queen's University Press in 2012.
She continued her artistic pursuits and birding at the University of Northern British Columbia. She studied watercolour under Jennifer Ferris, Barry Rafuse and June Swanky Parker, drawing under Mary Richer and acrylics under Marlene Roberts between 1997 and 2001. She exhibited works at a variety of venues in Prince George from 1997-2000, including an exhibition at the Prince George Art Gallery in 1999, and exhibitions at the British Columbia Festival of Arts from 1998-2000. She was part of the Artists' Workshop in Prince George from 1997-2004. She served on the University of Northern British Columbia Arts Council between 1998-2004, curating two exhibitions on Canadian achievements in science in 1996 and 1997. She was voted elective member of the American Ornithologists' Union 1996, having joined in 1972 and having been a centennial committee member from 1982-1983.
In 2004, Ainley moved to Victoria where she became an adjunct professor of Women's Studies at the University of Victoria. In 2005, she received professor emeritus status from the University of Northern British Columbia and joined Studio Madrona, an artist group, with whom she exhibited work in Goward House in Victoria in 2005.
On September 26, 2008, Ainley passed away after a battle with cancer.
- Corporate body
- 1942 -
- 1924-March 19, 2010
- Corporate body
Created in 1912, the Ministry of Forests and Range, then known as the Department of Lands, recommended strong research programs towards further development of the forest industry in British Columbia. In 1923, research activities were implemented, and at that time, Assistant Chief Forester, Bob St. Clair, recommended the development of forest experiment stations. In 1924, the Aleza Lake Experiment Station opened east of Prince George, BC, where different research projects began, focusing on soil types and trees. The objectives of the Experiment Station were related to forest management, particularly growth and mortality of white spruce and balsam, soils, and spatial planning. By 1930, the Research Division was the most active throughout Canada. However, due to significant cutbacks during the Depression years, the loss of key figures occurred; many of whom were central to the success of the Research Division, such as Percy M. Barr, who headed the Division. After 38 years of operation, the Aleza Lake Experiment Station was formally closed in 1963 due to budget restrictions, and all remaining buildings were removed or destroyed. However, now re-named as the Aleza Lake Forest Reserve, the Department of Lands and Forests transferred the Reserve to the Prince George Forest District for a ten-year period. After this timeframe expired, no further review was given and the Aleza Lake Forest Reserve was considered abandoned until 1981 when some permanent sample plots were found and re-measured. Through their diligence, John Revel, and Harry Coates, both employees of the BC Forest Service at the time, re-measured these plots knowing the significance of past experiments conducted at the Research Forest. Coates had also retained the original data from the permanent sample plots. Coates and Revel were both key figures in having the Research Forest re-opened because of their knowledge of previous experiments conducted before the Experiment Station was closed. In 1984, by Order-In-Council, the Aleza Lake Forest Reserve was amalgamated with the Purden Forest Reserve. In the late 1980s, there was a push for the Research Forest to be re-opened because of its potential for forest management research and demonstration. As a result, the Aleza Lake Steering Committee was formed in 1990, consisting of representatives from the Ministry of Forests, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, and Northwood Pulp and Timber Limited. In 1992, the Research Forest was reopened with a management and working plan in place and was officially renamed the Aleza Lake Research Forest, and in 2001, the forest became the fourth university research forest in British Columbia. The Aleza Lake Research Forest is now managed by the Aleza Lake Research Forest Society, a partnership between the University of Northern British Columbia, University of British Columbia, one delegated representative from the BC Ministry of Forests and Range, Prince George Regional office, and a delegated representative alternating between the BC Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Prince George office. Today, the central mandate of the Research Forest is to provide multidisciplinary programs focusing on partial cut harvest systems, biological diversity, climate change, and environmental monitoring in small forest tenures.
Aleza Lake Research Forest Society
- Corporate body
The Aleza Lake Research Forest is a 9000 hectare outdoor research facility and working forest 60 kilometres east of Prince George. The research forest was first established in 1924 and has an ongoing research and forest management legacy that approaches 100 years. Today, the forest is co-operatively managed by UNBC, the BC government, and industry partners, through the non-profit Aleza Lake Research Forest Society.
- Corporate body
- Corporate body
Vivian Antoniw (nee Wright) was born on 24 December 1918 in Virden, Manitoba to John and Edith Wright. In 1964 she received her B.Ed (Secondary) from UBC through a Double Art Major in Drawing and Painting, Design and Ceramics and then went on to pursue her M.Ed (Fine Arts) from the Western Washington State University which she received in 1975. From 1959-1988 she taught various art programs in Kitimat, BC (1959-1980) and Prince George, BC (1984-1988). Throughout the 1980s and 1990s she participated in numerous one person art shows, group exhibits and juried art shows and was a member of the famous Milltown Painters (6) group. Her work has been collected by various private individuals as well as by Canfor Pulp Mill (Prince George), the Prince George Tourist Bureau, Grace Anglican Church (Prince George) and the Ukranian Catholic Church (Prince George) among many others. Vivian Antoniw was primarly a watercolourist who also worked in oils & acrylics. Her themes were inspired by nature and she enjoyed painting the “various moods” as she called them, of Prince George, the Queen Charlotte Islands, Prince Rupert, Smithers, Kitimat, Jasper, Vancouver and Victoria. Environmental issues such as the disappearance of the Monarch Butterfly, diminishing sea life and the loss of habitat were also a personal concern of hers which was often reflected in her art. Vivian Antoniw passed away in Prince George, BC in 2003.
- 1938 -
T.M. (Mike) Apsey graduated from the University of British Columbia in 1961 with a degree in forestry. After holding various positions in the private sector, he became Deputy Minister of Forests for British Columbia in 1978. After six years, he became President and Chief Executive Officer for the Council of Forest Industries, 1984-1998. In 2002, Mike was appointed a Member of the Order of Canada.
- March 5, 1959 - December 20, 2015
Dr. Joselito (Lito) Arocena [1956-2015], was a geochemistry professor at UNBC [1994 – 2015], was a founding member of the Natural Resources & Environmental Studies Institute (NRESi) at UNBC and UNBC’s first Canada Research Chair (2001). He had immigrated to Canada from the Philippines, held a master’s degree from the University of Philippines, a licentiate in soil science from the State University of Ghent and a doctorate in soil genesis and classification from the University of Alberta. Dr. Arocena collaborated internationally with universities in Spain, France and China and held an adjunct professorship with Wenzhou University in China.
As of December 2014, he had authored 105 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters, 56 of which held the names of NRESi as co-authors.
Association of American Railroads
- Corporate body
The Association of American Railroads was formed in 1934. It was an amalgamation of several different organizations, which represented the railroad industry including the Association of Railway Executives, the American Railway Association, the Bureau of Railway Economics, the Railway Treasury Officers Association, the Railway Accounting Officers Association, and the Bureau for the Safe Transportation of Explosives and other Dangerous Articles. These all became the Association of American Railroads on October 12, 1934. The AAR is one of the largest trade organizations in American and functions as a union, representing its members to their employers.
John Backhouse was born in Liverpool, England and acquired his higher education in England at the Newcastle School of Librarianship, and in the United States, at the University of Oklahoma. Backhouse worked extensively as a professional librarian, and gained experience in both public and academic libraries. In 1980, Backhouse began his political career in Prince George as a member of City Council, where he served as an alderman for six years. During this time, Backhouse also served as Chairman of the Senior Citizens' Building Committee and was instrumental in the development of the current Senior Citizens' Activity Centre at Fourth Avenue and Brunswick Street. John Backhouse was elected Mayor of Prince George in 1986 and served in this capacity until 1996. During this time, the City of Prince George underwent many important changes including, the establishment of the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC), the creation of the new Parkwood Place shopping complex, the Civic Centre and the Multiplex – new initiatives in which Backhouse was heavily involved. John Backhouse also served as a Director on the Board of B.C. Transit, and was a member of the B.C. Forest Sector Strategy Committee, the Minister's Advisory Council on Housing, and the UNBC Facilities Committee. In 1992, John Backhouse was elected vice-president of the Yellowhead Highway Association for the B.C. Caucus, afterwhich he served as the Northern Commissioner of British Columbia. He and his wife Vicky are now retired and reside in Prince George.
Ronald James (a.k.a. R.J. or Ron) Baker received his BA in 1951 and his MA in 1953 both from the University of British Columbia. With his education complete, Ron Baker went on to make significant contributions to the establishment of the community college system in Canada both as an educator and as an administrator from the early 1950s right through to his retirement in 1999. He also contributed greatly to the field of linguistic studies, most notably for the Prince George region, through his 1960-1961 examination of the Carrier language in the Nadleh Whuten (Nautley – Fort Fraser) Reserve on Fraser Lake in Northern B.C. R.J. Baker began his career in education as a lecturer (1951-1955; 1957-58) in the Department of English at the University of British Columbia (UBC); eventually advancing to the positions of Assistant Professor (1958-63) and Associate Professor (1963-65). It was during his UBC tenure in the 1960s that Ron Baker was asked to became one of the chief contributors to John B. Macdonald's report, “Higher Education in British Columbia and a Plan for the Future” (The University of British Columbia: 1962) This report led directly to the government's decision to establish a second university- Simon Fraser University- in the Lower Mainland. On November 14, 1963, the newly established Simon Fraser University (SFU) hired R.J. Baker as its first Director of Academic Planning. After assuming his duties on January 1, 1964 he went on to became the head of SFU's English Department on December 10, 1964: a position he held from 1964-1968. Throughout his SFU tenure, R.J. Baker also served on the provincial Academic Board for Higher Education, established to advise the government on applying the recommendations of the 1962 Macdonald Report. In 1969, Ron Baker left Simon Fraser University to become the first President of the University of Prince Edward Island, a post he held for nine years. On July 4, 1978 he was made an Officer of the Order of Canada for his contributions to higher education. In addition to his work in British Columbia and Prince Edward Island, he was a long-time member of the Board of Directors of the AUCC, served the maximum period allowed on the Canada Council and was the President of the Association of Atlantic Universities. He was also President of the Association of Canadian University Teachers of English and the Canadian Society for the Study of Higher Education, and served on the executives of the Canadian Linguistic Association and the Canadian Council of Teachers of English. In January 1990, he was asked by the government of British Columbia to write a preliminary report on the establishment of a university in the northern part of the province – a university eventually established as the University of Northern British Columbia. Dr. Baker has since retired and now lives in Surrey, British Columbia. [excerpt from Ron Baker fonds, Appendix: “Autobiographical Sketch” by R.J. Baker, courtesy of Simon Fraser University Archives and Records Management Department.]
Daphne Syson met George Baldwin when both were students at UBC. They married 2 October 1954, and moved to Prince George in October of that same year. Soon after her arrival, Daphne became Secretary of the Alaska Music Trail Concert Association, later renamed the Prince George Concert Association. At the same time, she also served as Secretary for the Prince George Historical Society and the Studio Society. She remained on the executive of the Alaska Music Trail group for ten years, serving as President for two. She was Charter Member of the Canadian Federation of University Women, and later served as President. When the oldest of Daphne's four children wanted to join the Brownies, she became Brown Owl for four years, then served three years as a District Commissioner. After serving as both member and Chairman of the Public Library Board, Daphne served as a member of the Mayor's Task Force to study the direction of libraries in Prince George. She was later appointed Director of the BC Library Development Commission. She served as Director of the Community Interest Account of Radio Station CJCI, was member and chairman of the Prince George Heritage Commission, and was later appointed Director of the BC Heritage Trust. She was a Director of the Prince George Community Foundation. In 2001, she was appointed Director of the UNBC foundation by the Provincial Government. Throughout her time in Prince George, she was extensively involved with St. Michael and All Angels Anglican Church.
George Walter Baldwin was raised in Lavoy, Alberta. He graduated from Law at the University of British Columbia in 1951. He then joined the US Air Force and served in the Judge Advocates department during the Korean War. In 1953, he returned to Canada. He came to Prince George in March 1954 to begin work as an articled student with Wilson, King and Fretwell, and was called to the Bar September 1954. He married Daphne Syson on 2 October 1954. When Baldwin became a partner in 1959, his firm became Wilson, King, Fretwell and Baldwin. Baldwin was a very active member of the Prince George community from the time he arrived until his untimely death 30 September 1987. He served as President of the Kiwanis Club, the Red Cross Society, the John Howard Society, the Cariboo Bar Association, and the Prince George Chamber of Commerce. He was also involved with the Boy Scouts, St. Michael and All Angels Anglican Church and the No Name Group, which contributed to the eventual establishment of the University of Northern British Columbia. In the 1970s Baldwin helped develop the CJCI radio station, and then served as Director for Central Interior Cablevision. He and his wife, Daphne, had four children.
- 7 May 1905 - 3 June 1955
Born in Gapview, Saskatchewan to Robert & Harriet Baxter, Bob Baxter came to the Prince George district in 1922 and launched on the varied assortment of careers that made his name known throughout the Central Interior.
Travelling first by wagon over the old Blackwater Road to Punchaw Lake, he trapped in the area for seven years. Following stints as brush cutter for Bellos Ranch and graderman for the Public Works Department, he later operated a garage and service station in partnership with Andy Whitehead. When fire destroyed the building in 1932, he took over the mail route between Prince George and Quesnel, making the return trip once a week. When roads improved, a tri-weekly service was initiated.
During World War II he built up a fleet of seven trucks which traveled south regularly with a varied assortment of freight. He later sold this transport business to Wade Transfer of Quesnel and took over partnership operation of the Sportsman’s Shop on George Street. After selling out there he purchased a share in the Culcultz Lake Resort.
Mr. Baxter was an enthusiastic sportsman during his residence in the B.C. Interior, as well as an active member of the Rod and Gun Club and the Trucker’s Association.
Married to Violet Bourchier Taylor in 1933, together they had four children: Allan, Fred, Dixson and Edna. Mr. Baxter passed away in his home in 1955.
- 1906 - 20 January 1985
Violet Bourchier Taylor was born in 1906 in Kispiox, BC to Hugh and Hermina Taylor. Hugh Taylor was one of the original telegraph operators of the “Trans Siberian Line”. Violet completed her primary education in Kispiox, and then moved to Prince Rupert where she lived with her relatives Sarah and Herbert Glassey while she completed high school. After finishing her schooling, she worked in Prince Rupert as a private secretary for the head master of the CNR and was subsequently transferred to Prince George in the early 1920s. A few years later she worked for the City Public Works Department.
In 1933 Violet married trucking firm owner Bob Baxter, who held the hauling contract to carry the mail and perishables between Quesnel and Prince George from 1932 to 1948. On numerous occasions during the 1940s when her husband was unable to hire drivers, Violet Baxter worked for him as a driver. Bob Baxter predeceased his wife in 1955.
Violet Baxter also worked for the Provincial Forest Service for 15 years, retiring in 1970. She had a love of the outdoors and a keen interest in the history of Prince George. Violet Baxter passed away in the Prince George Regional Hospital on January 20, 1985 at the age of 79.
- Corporate body
B.C. Chemicals was established in 1966 in Prince George, BC to produce sodium chlorate for the pulp and paper industry and tall oil for soap manufacturers. BC Chemicals was owned 50% by Northwood Pulp and 50% by Canfor. At 1976, B.C. Chemicals operated two 20,000 tons per year plants.
In 2003, Canfor Corp. sold its BC Chemicals business for $117.3-million (U.S.) to a subsidiary of Chemtrade Logistics Income Fund. Canfor agreed to purchase most of the sodium chlorate produced by BC Chemicals for 10 years and pay for the processing of soap skimmings from its own pulpmills.
Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Noranda Mines Limited: A Corporate Background Report. 1976. p. 20, 66.
- Corporate body
The British Columbia Folklore Society is a not-for-profit society established in November 1994 for the express purpose of bringing together and preserving the traditions of our Province. It is administered by an executive board made up of writers, storytellers, musicians, singers and folklore field-workers.
- Corporate body
- 1 March 1911 -
Strathcona, located in the heart of Vancouver Island, was British Columbia's first provincial park, created on March 1, 1911.
BC Parks is responsible for the designation, management and conservation of a system of ecological reserves, provincial parks and recreation areas located throughout the province. British Columbia’s parks and protected areas contain nationally and internationally significant natural and cultural features and outdoor experiences. The provincial system of parks is dedicated to the protection of natural environments for the inspiration, use and enjoyment of the public. Their mission statement is as follows: “Our parks, protected areas and conservation lands are a public trust. As such, our mission is to protect representative and special natural places within the Province's Protected Areas System for world class conservation, outdoor recreation, education and scientific study.”
- Corporate body
The British Columbia Trappers Association (BCTA) was formed in 1945 as an association of registered trappers. It is the oldest trapper’s association in Canada. Its four main objectives include: 1)To promote sound, humane furbearer fur management through research, education and cooperation with other related organizations; 2)To represent trappers at the provincial, national and international levels; 3)To promote the general welfare of the trappers of British Columbia; and 4)To promote communication, information and dialogue among trappers.
Today, the BC Trappers Association works to keep its members well informed. It publishes a quarterly magazine that includes articles on approved humane traps and trap sets. The magazine also includes articles on different species and the best way to maintain a healthy breeding population.
- 1886 - 1944
Born in France in 1886, Charles Bedaux moved to the United States and became a naturalized American citizen. He was a highly successful businessman in the field of management consulting. According to Jim Christy’s 1984 biography, prior to his most famous expedition in 1934 across northeastern British Columbia, he had made hunting and exploratory trips to northwestern BC in 1926 and1929, the central interior in 1931 and to northeastern BC in 1932 and 1933.
Bedaux announced his intention to cross northeastern BC with Citroën half-track trucks on May 25, 1934 in New York City. The Canadian Sub-Arctic Expedition launched from Edmonton, Alberta on July 6, 1934 and contained a formidable array of talent and beauty, including Floyd Crosby, a Hollywood cinematographer, two land surveyors, Frank Swannell and Ernest Lamarque, mining engineer Jack Bocock, a Citroën mechanic, many cowboys, as well as Bedaux’s mistress, his wife and her maid.
Due to a combination of weather, terrain and poor planning, the expedition failed and the Citroën vehicles were abandoned. Although Bedaux returned to northern BC in 1936 with plans to build a road, he did not follow through. In 1937 he hosted the marriage of the Duke and Duchess of Windsor at his French chateau. Collaborationist activities with Nazi-occupied France led to his 1942 arrest in North Africa. Returned to the U.S., he committed suicide in a Florida prison in 1944.
Bennett, W. A. C. (William Andrew Cecil)
- 6 September 1900 – 23 February 1979
William Andrew Cecil (W.A.C.) Bennett, PC, OC was the 25th Premier of the Canadian province of British Columbia. With just over 20 years in office, Bennett was and remains the longest-serving premier in British Columbia history.
Parker Bonney was born in 1889 in New Brunswick. In 1911, he graduated from the University of Washington with a forestry degree. He moved to Canada in 1913 and worked as a student in the Nass region. Parker Bonney worked for the Prince George Forestry Division starting from 1913. He was one of the first people to completely survey the Nass River Watershed and the Headwaters of the Skeena. He became the district forester for Prince Rupert in 1926, residing in Ocean Falls, B.C. until 1945. Later on in his life, Parker Bonney worked as a forestry engineer with Alcan and with Columbia Cellulose. Both Bonney Lake and Bonney Creek are named in his honour due to his contributions to the Northern BC forestry industry. Parker Bonney resided in North Vancouver until 1977 when he passed away.
- 26 April 1947 -
Lois Ruth Boone is a Canadian politician who served as MLA for Prince George North from 1986 to 1991, and Prince George-Mount Robson from 1991 to 2001, in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. She is a member of the British Columbia New Democratic Party.
Born in Vancouver, BC on April 26, 1947, Lois Ruth Boone began her political career as a School Trustee in Prince George in 1981 and later joined the British Columbia New Democratic Party. She served as MLA for Prince George North from 1986 to 1991, and Prince George-Mount Robson from 1991 to 2001, in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia. She held a number of political positions in the Executive Council of British Columbia, including Minister of Government Services, Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing, Minister of Transportation and Highways, Minister for Children and Families and Deputy Premier.
After stepping down from provincial politics, Lois was re-elected as a school trustee for School District #57. In October 2010 Lois announced she would seek the NDP nomination in the by-election in the federal riding of Prince George-Peace River. At the November 23rd, 2010 School District #57 public board meeting, she announced she would not be seeking renewal of her position as vice-chair of the board nor would she be seeking re-election as a trustee. Lois Boone lived and worked in Prince George for over 40 years.
- 4 February 1933 - 19 January 2018
Jack Boudreau was born in the small community of Penny in the central region of British Columbia between the McGregor and Upper Fraser Rivers. BC. Jack's parents, Joe and Bessie Boudreau, moved to Penny on May 15, 1923, and had seven children- Jack being the fifth. Jack Boudreau was the postmaster in Penny for several years, and then worked in forestry until his retirement in 1993. He has devoted his professional life to British Columbia's forest industry working as a licensed scaler, industrial first-aid attendant and forest fire fighter mostly with the Ministry of Forests. From early childhood he has been an avid lover of the outdoors. He is a mountain climber, fisher and skier. Boudreau is the author of five bestsellers—"Sternwheelers and Canyon Cats," "Crazy Man's Creek," "Grizzly Bear Mountain," "Wilderness Dreams and Mountains," "Campfires and Memories."
- 9 April 1875 – 20 January 1946
Born in Ontario on April 9, 1875, Alan Kirby “A.K.” Bourchier was Hugh Taylor’s cousin, related through Hugh's mother Lucy (nee Bourchier) Taylor. Mr. Bourchier and his wife Lillian were early pioneers of the Central Interior: moving to Alberta in 1902 and continuing on to South Fort George in 1906. Working for the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, A.K. Bourchier operated a supply freight transport business via scow and crew on the Fraser River in support of the railway construction camps. From 1911 to 1912, the Bourchiers operated a store at Tete Jaune while it was still a thriving construction camp.
A.K. Bourchier also served as Justice of the Peace for South Fort George. In 1913, Stipendiary Magistrate T. Herne took a six month leave of absence for which he was never officially replaced. Instead Mr. Bourchier, as Justice of the Peace for South Fort George, and Mr. Perkins, Justice of the Peace for Fort George, were expected to absorb Herne’s extensive magisterial responsibilities. Given the massive workload now beholden to both men, and the keen need for law enforcement in the Central Interior, Bourchier resigned from his position as Justice of the Peace in protest of the lack of government support.
At about the same time, the South Fort George townsite was placed on the open market and Mr. Bourchier was commissioned to clear lots during these boom days. Later, with Mrs. Bourchier, he ran the South Fort George post office for a short time and from ca.1915 through to the late 1930s, Mr. Bourchier also operated as a local auctioneer and appraiser. In March 1917, it is also reported that A. K. Bourchier took over the business of the Northern Hotel at South Fort George.
After the death of Deputy Sheriff Andrew Siddal in January 1942, A.K. Bourchier became Acting Deputy Sheriff. He served in this capacity under M.C. Wiggins until the latter retired as county sheriff in August 1943. That same month, Mr. Bourchier was appointed sole Sheriff of the vast area of the Cariboo/Central Interior until the eventual appointment of another sheriff across the Rockies in Dawson Creek.
Alan Kirby Bourchier died of an undisclosed illness at the Prince George Hospital in January 1946 at the age of 71.
British Columbia Forest Products Ltd.
- Corporate body
British Columbia Forest Products Limited (BCFP) was a forestry company that operated from 1946 to 1986 in British Columbia. BCFP expanded to include timber production, pulp and paper, veneer, plywood and transportation operations. For many years, it was considered to be the second largest forest company operating in British Columbia.
In January 1969, Noranda and Mead made a joint offer to acquire control of British Columbia Forest Products (BCFP). Mead already held an interest in this company and together the two companies had previously begun accumulating shares in the market. Noranda made a public offer to acquire 400,000 share (10.8%) of British Columbia Forest Products. The price was to one-half a share of Noranda plus $22.50 in cash. On the day prior to the announcement, the closing share prices of Noranda and BCFP were $35 and $31.25 respectively. This meant the offer was equivalent to $40 per BCFP share, a 28% premium.
At the time of the offer, Noranda and Mead each owned directly 427,700 share (11.5%). In addition, through Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company, a U.S. company, Mead also had a 50% interest in 1,000,000 shares. Noranda further announced that, upon completion of the offer, its holdings and those of Mead would be equalized. Following the offer, a voting trust agreement representing the combined holdings of the companies was made in favour of Northwood Pulp.
At the time of purchase, BCFP was contemplating a major expansion project at Mackenzie. This was later approved and production of a new pulp mill began early in 1973.
BCFP was purchased in 1987 by Fletcher Challenge Limited of New Zealand and merged with BC company Crown Forest Industries. Fletcher Challenge Canada Limited was thereby established with a sharpened focus on pulp and paper. In 2000, Norwegian paper company Norske Skog purchased all of Fletcher Challenge’s pulp and paper assets and the company name changed to Norske Skog Canada Limited. The size of the company doubled in 2001 with the acquisition of Pacifica Papers and the merged operation assumed the name NorskeCanada. In 2005 the business was renamed Catalyst Paper.
Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Noranda Mines Limited: A Corporate Background Report. 1976. p. 19-20, 90-92.
British Columbia Legislative Council
- Corporate body
The Legislative Council of British Columbia was an advisory body created in 1867 to the Governor of the "new" Colony of British Columbia, which had been created from the merger of the old Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. The new colony, like its predecessors, did not have responsible government, and while its debates and resolutions carried considerable weight, executive power remained in the hands of the Governor, who at the time of the Council's founding as Frederick Seymour.
There were three groups of members: five senior officials of the Colony, who also constituted its Executive Council, nine magistrates, and nine elected members. The electoral members represented two seats in Victoria, one in Greater Victoria ("Victoria District"), New Westminster, Columbia River and Kootenay, Nanaimo, Yale and Lytton, Lillooet, and Cariboo.
The council was abolished in 1871 when British Columbia became a province.
British Columbia Liberal Party
- Corporate body
The British Columbia Liberal Party (also referred to as the BC Liberals) is a political party in British Columbia, Canada. First elected for government in 1916, the party went into decline after 1952, with its rump caucus merging with the Social Credit Party for the 1975 election. It was returned to the legislature through the efforts of Gordon Wilson in a break-through in the 1991 election. At this time, the Social Credit Party collapsed, with the BC Liberals able to garner the centre vote traditionally split between left and right extremes in British Columbia politics. After Wilson lost a leadership challenge in the wake of a personal scandal in a bitter three-way race, the party was led by Gordon Campbell, who became Leader of the Opposition after Wilson's convention defeat. In the wake of the collapse of the British Columbia New Democratic Party (BC NDP) vote in the 2001 election, the Campbell-led BC Liberals won an overwhelming majority in 2001.
Previously affiliated with the Liberal Party of Canada, the British Columbia Liberal Party has been independent of its federal counterpart since the late 1980s and subsequently displaced the British Columbia Social Credit Party as the province's de facto liberal-conservative coalition opposed to the social democratic, pro-union British Columbia New Democratic Party.
British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines
- Corporate body
The Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources was established in 1899 under its first name, the Dept. of Mines, by the Department of Mines Act (SBC 1899, c. 48). Prior to that, the earliest regulation of mining in the province was implemented under the Gold Fields Proclamation of 1859 with the appointment of two gold commissioners by Governor James Douglas for the Colony of British Columbia. A gold commissioner was first appointed in 1864 for the Colony of Vancouver Island. The commissioners registered claims, issued licenses and adjudicated disputes with the advice and aid of elected district mining boards. The establishment of a provincial government with British Columbias entry into Confederation ultimately led to a Minister of Mines Act (SBC 1874, c. 16) in 1874. The Provincial Secretary also served as the Minister of Mines. In 1895, the Bureau of Mines Act 1895 (SBC 1895, c. 3) brought together all government offices connected with the mining industry. A provincial mineralogist was appointed who reported to the Provincial Secretary and Minister of Mines. In 1899, the Department of Mines Act created a separate department and minister. The Bureau of Mines remained in place as the technical division of the department and was also responsible for the certification for assayists. Revisions to the Department of Mines Act in 1934 and 1937 abolished the bureau and completely reorganized and centralized the department, dividing the functions into four branches: Administration Branch under the chief gold commissioner; Assay Branch under the chief analyst and assayer; Mineralogical Branch under the chief mining engineer; and Mines Inspection Branch under the chief inspector of mines. The department had responsibility for all matters affecting mining, including the collection, publication and circulation of information relating to mining, administration of all mining laws, and the operation and maintenance of the Provincial Assay Office, laboratories, sampling plants, and the maintenance of the Museum of Minerals. The functions and responsibilities of the department remained relatively stable until 1953 when responsibility for administration of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act and the Coal Act was transferred from the Department of Lands and Forests. A Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch, headed by the Chief Petroleum Engineer, was established and the department was renamed the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources in 1960 (SBC 1960, c. 107). In 1976, it was renamed the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources (OIC 3199/76). The mandate of the ministry was enlarged again in 1978 to include responsibility for energy matters from the disestablished Ministry of Energy, Transport and Communications. Energy resources include natural gas and oil, coal, and electrical power. The ministry was renamed the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources (OIC 3018/78). The ministry was disestablished in 1996 as part of a government-wide reorganization (OIC 197/96). Its duties, powers and functions, other than those related to the Utilities Commission, were transferred to the newly established Ministry of Employment and Investment.
British Columbia Provincial Police
- Corporate body
The British Columbia Provincial Police Force was established in 1871 under its first name, the British Columbia Constabulary. Prior to that, policing in the Colony of British Columbia was the responsibility of the Chief Inspector of Police (1858-1863) or Superintendent of Police (1863-1871) and in the Colony of Vancouver Island by the Commissioner of Police (1858-1866). In 1871, when the Colony of British Columbia joined confederation as a province of the Dominion of Canada, the police came under the authority of the Attorney-General. The reporting structure required the Superintendent of Police to report to the Attorney-General while the constables were under the direction of the government agent of the district who reported to the Superintendent. The mandate of the British Columbia Constabulary was to maintain peace and order and to enforce the laws of the province under the authority of An Act respecting Police Constables (SBC 1880, c. 22, revised SBC 1888, c. 96). In 1895, under the new Provincial Police Act (SBC 1895, c. 45) the name was changed to the British Columbia Provincial Police Force. The duties of the force included patrolling the land, waterways, and coastline, enforcing laws, maintaining peace, policing strikes, controlling smuggling, and generally enforcing provincial statutes. Special constables were also deployed as required. In 1946, the force policed all rural areas and unincorporated settlements as well as forty municipalities throughout the province. The British Columbia Provincial Police Force ceased to exist in 1950, when provincial policing was taken over by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
(See also Langley Centennial Museum and the BC Provincial Police Veterans Association http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/202/300/inditer/2000/10-10/bcpolice/bcp.htm )
- Corporate body
BC Rail - known as the British Columbia Railway between 1972 and 1984 and as the Pacific Great Eastern Railway (PGE) prior to 1972 - was a railway that operated in British Columbia between 1912 and 2004. It was a class II regional railway and the third-largest in Canada, operating 2,320 km of mainline track. Primarily a freight railway, BC Rail also offered passenger service, as well as some excursion services, most notably the Royal Hudson excursion train. Its operations were owned by the public as a crown corporation from 1918 until 2004, when the provincial government leased operations for 999 years to CN Rail.
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway (PGE) was incorporated on February 27th, 1912. The primary goal of the PGE was to complete a rail line heading north from Vancouver to Prince George where it would connect with the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (GTPR). The PGE was privately owned until 1918 when it encountered financial difficulties and was taken over by the British Columbia Government as a Crown Corporation. By 1921 the railway had expanded to a point north of Quesnel but was still 80 miles south of the connection at Prince George. There were no large urban centers on the rail line during this time and it was primarily used for logging and mining operations from British Columbia’s interior to Squamish. In 1949 the PGE began to expand and on November 1st, 1952 the PGE completed a junction with Canadian National Railway in Prince George. On August 27th, 1956 the PGE completed a line between Squamish and North Vancouver thus completing its original goal of a rail line from Vancouver to Prince George. In 1958 the PGE reached Fort St. John and Dawson Creek to meet with the Alberta Railways, and on September 10th, 1971 a rail line was largely extended to connect Fort St. John to Fort Nelson. In 1972 the Pacific Great Eastern changed its name to British Columbia Railway (BCR).
Bulkley Valley Forest Industries Ltd.
- Corporate body
Bulkley Valley Pulp and Timber was established in 1963 to pursue the construction of a pulp mill. In 1966 they obtained a Pulp Harvesting License, covering 40,000 square miles of timber.
The mill was sold in 1968 to Bowater-Bathhurst. Construction of what was to be one of Canada's largest integrated forest product complex began in 1969 four miles west of Houston. In 1972, Northwood Pulp bought control of Bulkley Valley Forest Industries from Consolidated-Bathurst Ltd. and the Bowater Corporation Ltd, which were incurring serious losses due to operational problems at its sawmill.
Northwood trimmed excesses that were contributing to the operation's troubles and production improved almost overnight. Northwood recognized the long-term and stable wood supply in the area and concentrated on developing the sawmill aspect of the complex.
The Northwood mill was taken over by Canadian Forest Products in late 1999 and became known as the Canfor mill.
Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Noranda Mines Limited: A Corporate Background Report. 1976. p. 20.
- Corporate body
- 1892 -1942
The Bullion Mines, also known as the Bulllion Pit, was a gold mine in Likely, British Columbia that operated from 1892 to 1942. It was associated with the Consolidated Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Company and the South Fork Hydraulic Mine. The objectives of the company were to pursue hydraulic and other processes of mining, to own and construct ditching flumes or other systems of waterways and to acquire and operate, sell or lease mines, minerals, water and waterways. In 1894 the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Company bought the South Fork Hydraulic and Mining company. Both were dissolved in 1912.
Business Council on National Issues (BCNI)
- Corporate body
- 18 October 1932-
Iona Victoria Campagnolo (née Hardy) was born in Vancouver, B.C on October 18, 1932 to Rosamond and Kenneth Hardy. Soon thereafter her family returned to Galiano Island to the family home. In 1940, the Hardy family moved up the coast to the North Pacific Cannery located on the Skeena River near Prince Rupert, where her father worked as Chief of Maintenance. On August 9, 1952 she married (and later divorced) Louis Campagnolo, and together they had two daughters. It was out of a concern for the quality of her daughters’ education that Iona Campagnolo first became involved with municipal politics: first being elected to the Prince Rupert School Board in 1966 where she served for six years as School Trustee, Chairman of the Board, and North Coast Zone Chairman of the Board. Upon completion of her term on the School Board, she ran in the Prince Rupert civic election, won, and served a term as ‘Alderman’ (City Councilor) until 1974. Also during this period (1965-1974) Iona Campagnolo was working for CHTK Radio, Skeena Broadcasters Ltd., as both Advertising Sales Director and Broadcaster: her prowess at the latter position earned her a B.C. Broadcaster of the Year award in 1973.
The early seventies were not only a time of political activism for Iona Campagnolo, they were also a time of continued community activism and development of ethnocultural initiatives within the City of Prince Rupert that had originally begun almost twenty years earlier in 1954. In 1971 Iona Campagnolo was appointed the Royal Visit Co-ordinator for the City of Prince Rupert. As producer, director and costume designer for many performances of the North Pacific Players (a Prince Rupert theatre company) Iona Campagnolo was intrinsically involved in several community theatre performances. To acknowledge and honour her 20 years of dynamic volunteerism within her community, she was made a Member of the Order of Canada in 1973 and was promoted to Officer in 2008.
In 1974 Iona Campagnolo turned her attention to federal politics. Running as a Liberal Party candidate for the riding of Skeena, she won this election and ousted long standing Skeena MP Frank Howard. As Member of Parliament for Skeena, Iona Campagnolo first served as Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (1974-1976). She was then appointed a Cabinet Member in Pierre Trudeau’s government – a position which subsequently granted her the portfolio of Minister of State for Fitness and Amateur Sport (Sept. 14, 1976 – May 22, 1979). Not only did this new appointment grant her the distinction of becoming the very first Minister of Amateur Sport in Canada, she also became the first woman and Northerner to be appointed a federal Minister.
After electoral defeat in the May 1979 federal election, Iona Campagnolo embarked upon several years of active involvement within the public, private and non-profit realms. Ms. Campagnolo served for two years (1979-1981) as host of a prime time feature interview program on the CBC, from Vancouver, titled “One of a Kind”. During the first three months of 1981, Ms. Campagnolo completed an assignment by the Secretary of State for External Affairs, to organize the founding and incorporation of the “Future’s Secretariat,” with the aim of creating a series of community Task Forces and network linkages at the local level, which would raise the consciousness of Canadians to the interdependent nature of the world and Canada’s role and responsibility to it.
Working as a consultant on Public Relations and Fundraising to CUSO-VSO, (then known only as CUSO or the Canadian University Services Overseas Organization) Iona Campagnolo undertook a large number of speaking engagements particularly in support of refugee re-development, with emphasis on Thai-Kampuchean Border refugees. After spearheading the raising of more than half a million dollars in 1980 towards this particular campaign, she continued to work on various other campaigns on behalf of CUSO. Iona Campagnolo was also a Special Projects Consultant to the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).
Iona Campagnolo also devoted much time to feminist initiatives, becoming involved in the Jerusalem Women’s Seminar and Intercultural Dialogue and assisting in the organization and emergence of women’s networks in several Canadian urban centers such as Edmonton and Vancouver.
Also from 1979-1981 Ms. Campagnolo acted as Special Consultant in several different capacities to Simon Fraser University (SFU). In January of 1981, Ms. Campagnolo was guest lecturer to senior-level students in the Sport Administration Degree program at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ont. where she spoke on the involvement of various levels of government in sport development.
During this inter-political period, Ms. Campagnolo was also a consultant to the Calgary Olympic Development Association, assisting them with their bid for the 1988 Winter Olympics, through personal contact with members of the international sport community, including presenting Calgary’s bid to IOC (International Olympic Committee) members in Africa and Europe.
In 1982 Iona Campagnolo once again heard the call from the political realm and stood for election this time for the position of President of the Liberal Party of Canada. She was elected to this position by a Party Convention on November 7, 1982 as the first woman President of the Liberal Party of Canada, after 50 years of male predecessors. In the September 1984 federal election Iona Campagnolo made one last run at federal politics when she ran in the North Vancouver-Burnaby riding. She was, however, defeated in the Mulroney landslide victory that reduced John Turner’s Liberals down to 40 seats. Also in 1984, she served as National Co-Chair of the Liberal Leadership Convention, and was re-elected to the office of President by acclamation at this June 1984 Convention. Ms. Campagnolo served in this capacity until November 27, 1986.
From 1986 - 1996 Iona Campagnolo worked on contract with Contemporary Communications for the National Speakers Bureau. Writing and delivering speeches across the country to a myriad of organizations. From 1987-1990 Iona Campagnolo, as Associate Director, worked towards the establishment and development of the McMaster University Centre for International Health.
In 1992, Iona Campagnolo became actively involved with the establishment and development of a new university in northern British Columbia – the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC) in Prince George. On May 23, 1992 she was appointed the founding Chancellor of the University.
In 1995 Iona Campagnolo became a Director (1995-1996) and then Chair (1996-1997) of the Fraser Basin Management Program (FBMP) which worked towards bringing together all four orders of Canadian government (federal, provincial, municipal and First Nations) to address some of the key river management issues identified by Fraser River Action Plan - a part of Canada’s Green Plan.
On September 21, 2001, Iona Campagnolo was appointed by Governor General Adrienne Clarkson in the name of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, on the advice of Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, as British Columbia’s first female Lieutenant Governor; a position in which she served until September 30, 2007.
Since 2007, the Honourable Iona Campagnolo has remained actively involved with two key issues: reconciling Aboriginal Rights and Title with Crown Title, and salmon sustainability in collaboration with the faculty of Continuing Studies in Science at Simon Fraser University. She currently makes her home on Vancouver Island.
Canada Wire and Cable Company Ltd.
- Corporate body
Canada Wire and Cable Company Ltd. was one of the largest manufacturers of electrical wire and cable in Canada.
Noranda Mines' entry into manufacturing occurred when it purchased a substantial interest in Canada Wire and Cable Company, Ltd. in 1930. This happened when Canada Wire decided to build a copper rod mill in Montreal adjacent to Noranda's new copper refinery. This mill was an important outlet for Noranda's copper production at the time.
Canada Wire then grew into the company's most important manufacturing enterprise, and several other interests were developed out of it. Since 1950, Canada Wire's growth occurred through a combination of new plant construction and acquisitions. Canada Wire operated over 11 plants and 7 warehouses across Canada.
In additional to its substantial growth in Canada, starting in 1961 Canada Wire began to make foreign investments. These usually involved the company providing financial and technical assistance in return for a minority interest. Canada Wire started with investments in Central and South America, and later held interests in ten different countries.
Canada Wire also had a fertilizer division at Belledune, New Brunswick. This plant, with a capacity of 220,000 tons per year of diammonium phosphate, was acquired through the refinancing of Brunswick Mining and Smelting. The principal raw materials were sulphuric acid, which was obtained from Brunswick, and phosphate rock which was brought from Florida.
Besides its operating divisions, Canada Wire also had investments in several companies primarily involved in research and development activities.
Source: Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Noranda Mines Limited: A Corporate Background Report. 1976. p. 14-15, 54-55.
Canadian Forest Industries Council (CFIC)
- Corporate body
Canadian Forestry Advisory Council (CFAC)
- Corporate body
Canadian Institute of Forestry
- Corporate body
In January 1908 the Canadian Society of Forest Engineers was established to oversee the professional interests of foresters across the nation. The objectives of this Society were: (1) to advance the members in the theory and practice of forestry by the discussion of technical and professional topics; (2) to promote a better mutual acquaintance among Canadian foresters and to cultivate an esprit de corps among members ; and (3) to promote, in Canada, the interests of the forestry profession as a whole.
In 1925 the Society undertook the publication of a "The Forestry Chronicle" which became the official publication of the Canadian Society of Forest Engineers and its successor, the Canadian Institute of Forestry (CIF). In 1950, the Federal Minister of Lands and Forests incorporated this successor, and the CIF took over as the national membership of forest practitioners. To this day the objectives of the CIF include the advancement of stewardship of Canada's forest resources, the provision of national leadership in forestry, the promotion of competence among forestry professionals, and the development of public awareness of Canadian and international forestry issues. The Canadian Forestry Institute - Cariboo Section was established ca. 1951 and encompasses the entire northern half of the province of British Columbia.
- Corporate body
Canadian National Railway (CN) was incorporated as a Crown corporation on the 6th of June 1919. It is the longest railway system and the only transcontinental railway in North America. Canadian National originated from five railways: the Grand Trunk Railway, the Intercolonial Railway, the Canadian Northern Railway, the National Trans Continental Railway, and the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (1917-1923). The conglomeration came about after a Royal Commission was called in 1917, which recommended the nationalization of all the railways except the Canadian Pacific Railway. During the depression of the 1930s there was a loss in traffic volume partially due to highway and air traffic increases, which led to a decrease in wages and employment. From the 1950s to 1960s, Canadian National began to modernize and converted to diesel locomotives and electronic signaling. The head office was also moved to Montréal. By 1989 Canadian National divested its non-rail business and abandoned thousands of kilometers of track, networks, and branch lines across the country to become a primarily freight rail company. In 1995 Canadian National was privatized and many of its shares purchased by American investors; however, the headquarters remained in Montréal to ensure that Canadian National remained a Canadian corporation.
- Corporate body
Canadian Pacific Railway was founded in 1881 to link Canada's populated Eastern centres with the vast potential of its relatively unpopulated West. On Nov. 7, 1885, the Eastern and Western portions of the Canadian Pacific Railway met at Craigellachie, B.C., where Donald A. Smith drove the last spike. The cost of construction almost broke the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, but within three years of the first transcontinental train leaving Montreal and Toronto for Port Moody on June 28, 1886, the railway's financial house was once again in order and CPR began paying dividends again. By 1889, the railway extended from coast to coast and the enterprise had expanded to include a wide range of related and unrelated businesses.
CPR had been involved in land settlement and land sales as early as September 1881. The company also erected telegraph lines right alongside the main transcontinental line, transmitting its first commercial telegram in 1882. The same year also marked CPR's entry into the express shipment business, with the acquisition of the Dominion Express Company. CPR started building some of its own steam locomotives as early as 1883 and would later build its own passenger cars, making it second only on the continent to the Pullman Company of Chicago, Illinois.
With the outbreak of World War II, the entire Canadian Pacific network was put at the disposal of the war effort. On land, CPR moved 307 million tons of freight and 86 million passengers, including 280,000 military personnel. At sea 22 CPR ships went to war where 12 of them were sunk. In the air, CPR pioneered the "Atlantic Bridge" – a massive undertaking that saw the transatlantic ferrying of bombers from Canada to Britain.
In the 1950s, CPR chief Norris R. Crump repatriated the company, putting a majority of shares back in the hands of Canadian stockholders. He also presided over complete dieselization of the company's fleet of locomotives and managed a huge expansion into non-transportation sectors, setting up Canadian Pacific Investments in 1962.
Today, CPR's 14,000-mile network extends from the Port of Vancouver in the Canada's West to The Port of Montreal in Canada's East, and to the U.S. industrial centers of Chicago, Newark, Philadelphia, Washington, New York City and Buffalo.
Canadian Pulp & Paper Association (CPPA)
- Corporate body