Showing 112 results

Authority record
Corporate body

Aleza Lake Research Forest

  • Corporate body
  • 1924-present

Created in 1912, the Ministry of Forests and Range, then known as the Department of Lands, recommended strong research programs towards further development of the forest industry in British Columbia. In 1923, research activities were implemented, and at that time, Assistant Chief Forester, Bob St. Clair, recommended the development of forest experiment stations. In 1924, the Aleza Lake Experiment Station opened east of Prince George, BC, where different research projects began, focusing on soil types and trees. The objectives of the Experiment Station were related to forest management, particularly growth and mortality of white spruce and balsam, soils, and spatial planning. By 1930, the Research Division was the most active throughout Canada. However, due to significant cutbacks during the Depression years, the loss of key figures occurred; many of whom were central to the success of the Research Division, such as Percy M. Barr, who headed the Division. After 38 years of operation, the Aleza Lake Experiment Station was formally closed in 1963 due to budget restrictions, and all remaining buildings were removed or destroyed. However, now re-named as the Aleza Lake Forest Reserve, the Department of Lands and Forests transferred the Reserve to the Prince George Forest District for a ten-year period. After this timeframe expired, no further review was given and the Aleza Lake Forest Reserve was considered abandoned until 1981 when some permanent sample plots were found and re-measured. Through their diligence, John Revel, and Harry Coates, both employees of the BC Forest Service at the time, re-measured these plots knowing the significance of past experiments conducted at the Research Forest. Coates had also retained the original data from the permanent sample plots. Coates and Revel were both key figures in having the Research Forest re-opened because of their knowledge of previous experiments conducted before the Experiment Station was closed. In 1984, by Order-In-Council, the Aleza Lake Forest Reserve was amalgamated with the Purden Forest Reserve. In the late 1980s, there was a push for the Research Forest to be re-opened because of its potential for forest management research and demonstration. As a result, the Aleza Lake Steering Committee was formed in 1990, consisting of representatives from the Ministry of Forests, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, and Northwood Pulp and Timber Limited. In 1992, the Research Forest was reopened with a management and working plan in place and was officially renamed the Aleza Lake Research Forest, and in 2001, the forest became the fourth university research forest in British Columbia. The Aleza Lake Research Forest is now managed by the Aleza Lake Research Forest Society, a partnership between the University of Northern British Columbia, University of British Columbia, one delegated representative from the BC Ministry of Forests and Range, Prince George Regional office, and a delegated representative alternating between the BC Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Prince George office. Today, the central mandate of the Research Forest is to provide multidisciplinary programs focusing on partial cut harvest systems, biological diversity, climate change, and environmental monitoring in small forest tenures.

Aleza Lake Research Forest Society

  • Corporate body
  • 2001-present

The Aleza Lake Research Forest is a 9000 hectare outdoor research facility and working forest 60 kilometres east of Prince George. The research forest was first established in 1924 and has an ongoing research and forest management legacy that approaches 100 years. Today, the forest is co-operatively managed by UNBC, the BC government, and industry partners, through the non-profit Aleza Lake Research Forest Society.

Association of American Railroads

  • Corporate body
  • 1934-

The Association of American Railroads was formed in 1934. It was an amalgamation of several different organizations, which represented the railroad industry including the Association of Railway Executives, the American Railway Association, the Bureau of Railway Economics, the Railway Treasury Officers Association, the Railway Accounting Officers Association, and the Bureau for the Safe Transportation of Explosives and other Dangerous Articles. These all became the Association of American Railroads on October 12, 1934. The AAR is one of the largest trade organizations in American and functions as a union, representing its members to their employers.

B.C. Trappers Association

  • Corporate body
  • 1945-

The British Columbia Trappers Association (BCTA) was formed in 1945 as an association of registered trappers. It is the oldest trapper’s association in Canada. Its four main objectives include: 1)To promote sound, humane furbearer fur management through research, education and cooperation with other related organizations; 2)To represent trappers at the provincial, national and international levels; 3)To promote the general welfare of the trappers of British Columbia; and 4)To promote communication, information and dialogue among trappers.

Today, the BC Trappers Association works to keep its members well informed. It publishes a quarterly magazine that includes articles on approved humane traps and trap sets. The magazine also includes articles on different species and the best way to maintain a healthy breeding population.

BC Chemicals Ltd.

  • Corporate body
  • 1966-

B.C. Chemicals was established in 1966 in Prince George, BC to produce sodium chlorate for the pulp and paper industry and tall oil for soap manufacturers. BC Chemicals was owned 50% by Northwood Pulp and 50% by Canfor. At 1976, B.C. Chemicals operated two 20,000 tons per year plants.

In 2003, Canfor Corp. sold its BC Chemicals business for $117.3-million (U.S.) to a subsidiary of Chemtrade Logistics Income Fund. Canfor agreed to purchase most of the sodium chlorate produced by BC Chemicals for 10 years and pay for the processing of soap skimmings from its own pulpmills.

Sources:
Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Noranda Mines Limited: A Corporate Background Report. 1976. p. 20, 66.

https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/canfor-sells-chemicals-unit-to-chemtrade/article1164847/

BC Folklore Society

  • Corporate body
  • 1994-

The British Columbia Folklore Society is a not-for-profit society established in November 1994 for the express purpose of bringing together and preserving the traditions of our Province. It is administered by an executive board made up of writers, storytellers, musicians, singers and folklore field-workers.

BC Parks

  • Corporate body
  • 1 March 1911 -

Strathcona, located in the heart of Vancouver Island, was British Columbia's first provincial park, created on March 1, 1911.

BC Parks is responsible for the designation, management and conservation of a system of ecological reserves, provincial parks and recreation areas located throughout the province. British Columbia’s parks and protected areas contain nationally and internationally significant natural and cultural features and outdoor experiences. The provincial system of parks is dedicated to the protection of natural environments for the inspiration, use and enjoyment of the public. Their mission statement is as follows: “Our parks, protected areas and conservation lands are a public trust. As such, our mission is to protect representative and special natural places within the Province's Protected Areas System for world class conservation, outdoor recreation, education and scientific study.”

British Columbia Forest Products Ltd.

  • Corporate body
  • 1946-1986

British Columbia Forest Products Limited (BCFP) was a forestry company that operated from 1946 to 1986 in British Columbia. BCFP expanded to include timber production, pulp and paper, veneer, plywood and transportation operations. For many years, it was considered to be the second largest forest company operating in British Columbia.

In January 1969, Noranda and Mead made a joint offer to acquire control of British Columbia Forest Products (BCFP). Mead already held an interest in this company and together the two companies had previously begun accumulating shares in the market. Noranda made a public offer to acquire 400,000 share (10.8%) of British Columbia Forest Products. The price was to one-half a share of Noranda plus $22.50 in cash. On the day prior to the announcement, the closing share prices of Noranda and BCFP were $35 and $31.25 respectively. This meant the offer was equivalent to $40 per BCFP share, a 28% premium.

At the time of the offer, Noranda and Mead each owned directly 427,700 share (11.5%). In addition, through Brunswick Pulp and Paper Company, a U.S. company, Mead also had a 50% interest in 1,000,000 shares. Noranda further announced that, upon completion of the offer, its holdings and those of Mead would be equalized. Following the offer, a voting trust agreement representing the combined holdings of the companies was made in favour of Northwood Pulp.

At the time of purchase, BCFP was contemplating a major expansion project at Mackenzie. This was later approved and production of a new pulp mill began early in 1973.

BCFP was purchased in 1987 by Fletcher Challenge Limited of New Zealand and merged with BC company Crown Forest Industries. Fletcher Challenge Canada Limited was thereby established with a sharpened focus on pulp and paper. In 2000, Norwegian paper company Norske Skog purchased all of Fletcher Challenge’s pulp and paper assets and the company name changed to Norske Skog Canada Limited. The size of the company doubled in 2001 with the acquisition of Pacifica Papers and the merged operation assumed the name NorskeCanada. In 2005 the business was renamed Catalyst Paper.

Sources:
Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Noranda Mines Limited: A Corporate Background Report. 1976. p. 19-20, 90-92.

https://www.catalystpaper.com/about/history

British Columbia Legislative Council

  • Corporate body
  • 1867-1871

The Legislative Council of British Columbia was an advisory body created in 1867 to the Governor of the "new" Colony of British Columbia, which had been created from the merger of the old Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. The new colony, like its predecessors, did not have responsible government, and while its debates and resolutions carried considerable weight, executive power remained in the hands of the Governor, who at the time of the Council's founding as Frederick Seymour.

There were three groups of members: five senior officials of the Colony, who also constituted its Executive Council, nine magistrates, and nine elected members. The electoral members represented two seats in Victoria, one in Greater Victoria ("Victoria District"), New Westminster, Columbia River and Kootenay, Nanaimo, Yale and Lytton, Lillooet, and Cariboo.

The council was abolished in 1871 when British Columbia became a province.

British Columbia Liberal Party

  • Corporate body
  • 1903-

The British Columbia Liberal Party (also referred to as the BC Liberals) is a political party in British Columbia, Canada. First elected for government in 1916, the party went into decline after 1952, with its rump caucus merging with the Social Credit Party for the 1975 election. It was returned to the legislature through the efforts of Gordon Wilson in a break-through in the 1991 election. At this time, the Social Credit Party collapsed, with the BC Liberals able to garner the centre vote traditionally split between left and right extremes in British Columbia politics. After Wilson lost a leadership challenge in the wake of a personal scandal in a bitter three-way race, the party was led by Gordon Campbell, who became Leader of the Opposition after Wilson's convention defeat. In the wake of the collapse of the British Columbia New Democratic Party (BC NDP) vote in the 2001 election, the Campbell-led BC Liberals won an overwhelming majority in 2001.

Previously affiliated with the Liberal Party of Canada, the British Columbia Liberal Party has been independent of its federal counterpart since the late 1980s and subsequently displaced the British Columbia Social Credit Party as the province's de facto liberal-conservative coalition opposed to the social democratic, pro-union British Columbia New Democratic Party.

British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines

  • Corporate body
  • 1899-

The Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources was established in 1899 under its first name, the Dept. of Mines, by the Department of Mines Act (SBC 1899, c. 48). Prior to that, the earliest regulation of mining in the province was implemented under the Gold Fields Proclamation of 1859 with the appointment of two gold commissioners by Governor James Douglas for the Colony of British Columbia. A gold commissioner was first appointed in 1864 for the Colony of Vancouver Island. The commissioners registered claims, issued licenses and adjudicated disputes with the advice and aid of elected district mining boards. The establishment of a provincial government with British Columbias entry into Confederation ultimately led to a Minister of Mines Act (SBC 1874, c. 16) in 1874. The Provincial Secretary also served as the Minister of Mines. In 1895, the Bureau of Mines Act 1895 (SBC 1895, c. 3) brought together all government offices connected with the mining industry. A provincial mineralogist was appointed who reported to the Provincial Secretary and Minister of Mines. In 1899, the Department of Mines Act created a separate department and minister. The Bureau of Mines remained in place as the technical division of the department and was also responsible for the certification for assayists. Revisions to the Department of Mines Act in 1934 and 1937 abolished the bureau and completely reorganized and centralized the department, dividing the functions into four branches: Administration Branch under the chief gold commissioner; Assay Branch under the chief analyst and assayer; Mineralogical Branch under the chief mining engineer; and Mines Inspection Branch under the chief inspector of mines. The department had responsibility for all matters affecting mining, including the collection, publication and circulation of information relating to mining, administration of all mining laws, and the operation and maintenance of the Provincial Assay Office, laboratories, sampling plants, and the maintenance of the Museum of Minerals. The functions and responsibilities of the department remained relatively stable until 1953 when responsibility for administration of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Act and the Coal Act was transferred from the Department of Lands and Forests. A Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch, headed by the Chief Petroleum Engineer, was established and the department was renamed the Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources in 1960 (SBC 1960, c. 107). In 1976, it was renamed the Ministry of Mines and Petroleum Resources (OIC 3199/76). The mandate of the ministry was enlarged again in 1978 to include responsibility for energy matters from the disestablished Ministry of Energy, Transport and Communications. Energy resources include natural gas and oil, coal, and electrical power. The ministry was renamed the Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources (OIC 3018/78). The ministry was disestablished in 1996 as part of a government-wide reorganization (OIC 197/96). Its duties, powers and functions, other than those related to the Utilities Commission, were transferred to the newly established Ministry of Employment and Investment.

British Columbia Provincial Police

  • Corporate body
  • 1871-1950

The British Columbia Provincial Police Force was established in 1871 under its first name, the British Columbia Constabulary. Prior to that, policing in the Colony of British Columbia was the responsibility of the Chief Inspector of Police (1858-1863) or Superintendent of Police (1863-1871) and in the Colony of Vancouver Island by the Commissioner of Police (1858-1866). In 1871, when the Colony of British Columbia joined confederation as a province of the Dominion of Canada, the police came under the authority of the Attorney-General. The reporting structure required the Superintendent of Police to report to the Attorney-General while the constables were under the direction of the government agent of the district who reported to the Superintendent. The mandate of the British Columbia Constabulary was to maintain peace and order and to enforce the laws of the province under the authority of An Act respecting Police Constables (SBC 1880, c. 22, revised SBC 1888, c. 96). In 1895, under the new Provincial Police Act (SBC 1895, c. 45) the name was changed to the British Columbia Provincial Police Force. The duties of the force included patrolling the land, waterways, and coastline, enforcing laws, maintaining peace, policing strikes, controlling smuggling, and generally enforcing provincial statutes. Special constables were also deployed as required. In 1946, the force policed all rural areas and unincorporated settlements as well as forty municipalities throughout the province. The British Columbia Provincial Police Force ceased to exist in 1950, when provincial policing was taken over by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

(See also Langley Centennial Museum and the BC Provincial Police Veterans Association http://epe.lac-bac.gc.ca/100/202/300/inditer/2000/10-10/bcpolice/bcp.htm )

British Columbia Railway

  • Corporate body
  • 1972-2004

BC Rail - known as the British Columbia Railway between 1972 and 1984 and as the Pacific Great Eastern Railway (PGE) prior to 1972 - was a railway that operated in British Columbia between 1912 and 2004. It was a class II regional railway and the third-largest in Canada, operating 2,320 km of mainline track. Primarily a freight railway, BC Rail also offered passenger service, as well as some excursion services, most notably the Royal Hudson excursion train. Its operations were owned by the public as a crown corporation from 1918 until 2004, when the provincial government leased operations for 999 years to CN Rail.

The Pacific Great Eastern Railway (PGE) was incorporated on February 27th, 1912. The primary goal of the PGE was to complete a rail line heading north from Vancouver to Prince George where it would connect with the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (GTPR). The PGE was privately owned until 1918 when it encountered financial difficulties and was taken over by the British Columbia Government as a Crown Corporation. By 1921 the railway had expanded to a point north of Quesnel but was still 80 miles south of the connection at Prince George. There were no large urban centers on the rail line during this time and it was primarily used for logging and mining operations from British Columbia’s interior to Squamish. In 1949 the PGE began to expand and on November 1st, 1952 the PGE completed a junction with Canadian National Railway in Prince George. On August 27th, 1956 the PGE completed a line between Squamish and North Vancouver thus completing its original goal of a rail line from Vancouver to Prince George. In 1958 the PGE reached Fort St. John and Dawson Creek to meet with the Alberta Railways, and on September 10th, 1971 a rail line was largely extended to connect Fort St. John to Fort Nelson. In 1972 the Pacific Great Eastern changed its name to British Columbia Railway (BCR).

Bulkley Valley Forest Industries Ltd.

  • Corporate body
  • 1963-1999

Bulkley Valley Pulp and Timber was established in 1963 to pursue the construction of a pulp mill. In 1966 they obtained a Pulp Harvesting License, covering 40,000 square miles of timber.

The mill was sold in 1968 to Bowater-Bathhurst. Construction of what was to be one of Canada's largest integrated forest product complex began in 1969 four miles west of Houston. In 1972, Northwood Pulp bought control of Bulkley Valley Forest Industries from Consolidated-Bathurst Ltd. and the Bowater Corporation Ltd, which were incurring serious losses due to operational problems at its sawmill.

Northwood trimmed excesses that were contributing to the operation's troubles and production improved almost overnight. Northwood recognized the long-term and stable wood supply in the area and concentrated on developing the sawmill aspect of the complex.

The Northwood mill was taken over by Canadian Forest Products in late 1999 and became known as the Canfor mill.

Sources:
Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Noranda Mines Limited: A Corporate Background Report. 1976. p. 20.

https://www.houston.ca/forestry

Bullion Mines

  • 2000.15
  • Corporate body
  • 1892 -1942

The Bullion Mines, also known as the Bulllion Pit, was a gold mine in Likely, British Columbia that operated from 1892 to 1942. It was associated with the Consolidated Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Company and the South Fork Hydraulic Mine. The objectives of the company were to pursue hydraulic and other processes of mining, to own and construct ditching flumes or other systems of waterways and to acquire and operate, sell or lease mines, minerals, water and waterways. In 1894 the Cariboo Hydraulic Mining Company bought the South Fork Hydraulic and Mining company. Both were dissolved in 1912.

CKPG

  • Corporate body
  • Nov. 1944-

In November 1944, the Canadian Department of Transport granted a license to operate a radio station to brothers Cecil and Frank (Tiny) Elphicke of CKPG Radio Limited. Land was purchased in May 1945 for the transmitter site near the Hudson Bay Slough in Prince George. Construction of the transmitter began in August, and Radio Station CKPG Limited was incorporated and capitalized at $25,000 (2500 shares at 10.00 per share). CKPG signed on the air on at 5:00 p.m. on 8 February 1946, operating on 1230 kHz. Studios were in Ritz-Kiefer Hall on George Street and the 250-watt transmitter was at South Fort George. CKPG was a CBC Trans-Canada affiliate, with an original staff of Cecil Elphicke (Managing Director), Ray Tate (Engineer) and Jack Carbutt (announcer). Bob Harkins began as a copywriter at the station in 1954. Three years later, at age 26, Harkins was appointed general manager and president of the station. On 20 August 1959, CKPG-TV began broadcasting on Channel 2.

The CKPG-TV station began operations on August 20, 1961, with a power output of 8,300 watts. It was co-owned with the local radio station of the same name, and was a CBC affiliate from its inception. The station's president and general manager, Bob Harkins, was one of the first people to appear on air.

In 1965, the station put a re-broadcaster in Quesnel into operation on channel 13. In April 1969, both the CKPG radio and television stations were purchased by Vancouver's Q Broadcasting Ltd., owners of CHQM in Vancouver.

In 1973, Gord Leighton became the new general manager of both stations and by 1985, the station had six rebroadcasting stations (including three owned by the CBC) in operation in Hixon, Mackenzie, Quesnel, Vanderhoof, Fort Fraser and Ft. St. James.

In 1988, the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) renewed the network licence for CKPG-TV and CFTK-TV Terrace, which allowed the two CBC affiliates to use the Corporation's microwave equipment to transfer syndicated programming, when it wasn't being used for CBC programming.

On 11 October 1990, Radio Station CKPG Limited and its CKPG Television subsidiary were sold to Monarch Broadcasting Ltd.
On December 21, the CRTC approved the buyout of Monarch Broadcasting by the Jim Pattison Broadcast Group, a division of the Jim Pattison Group, which included CKPG-TV and its retransmission stations.

At noon on 30 May 2003, news-talk format CKPG-AM became classic-rock format CKDV-FM “The Drive”.

Canada Wire and Cable Company Ltd.

  • Corporate body
  • 1911-

Canada Wire and Cable Company Ltd. was one of the largest manufacturers of electrical wire and cable in Canada.

Noranda Mines' entry into manufacturing occurred when it purchased a substantial interest in Canada Wire and Cable Company, Ltd. in 1930. This happened when Canada Wire decided to build a copper rod mill in Montreal adjacent to Noranda's new copper refinery. This mill was an important outlet for Noranda's copper production at the time.

Canada Wire then grew into the company's most important manufacturing enterprise, and several other interests were developed out of it. Since 1950, Canada Wire's growth occurred through a combination of new plant construction and acquisitions. Canada Wire operated over 11 plants and 7 warehouses across Canada.

In additional to its substantial growth in Canada, starting in 1961 Canada Wire began to make foreign investments. These usually involved the company providing financial and technical assistance in return for a minority interest. Canada Wire started with investments in Central and South America, and later held interests in ten different countries.

Canada Wire also had a fertilizer division at Belledune, New Brunswick. This plant, with a capacity of 220,000 tons per year of diammonium phosphate, was acquired through the refinancing of Brunswick Mining and Smelting. The principal raw materials were sulphuric acid, which was obtained from Brunswick, and phosphate rock which was brought from Florida.

Besides its operating divisions, Canada Wire also had investments in several companies primarily involved in research and development activities.

Source: Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Noranda Mines Limited: A Corporate Background Report. 1976. p. 14-15, 54-55.

Canadian Institute of Forestry

  • Corporate body
  • 1908-

In January 1908 the Canadian Society of Forest Engineers was established to oversee the professional interests of foresters across the nation. The objectives of this Society were: (1) to advance the members in the theory and practice of forestry by the discussion of technical and professional topics; (2) to promote a better mutual acquaintance among Canadian foresters and to cultivate an esprit de corps among members ; and (3) to promote, in Canada, the interests of the forestry profession as a whole.

In 1925 the Society undertook the publication of a "The Forestry Chronicle" which became the official publication of the Canadian Society of Forest Engineers and its successor, the Canadian Institute of Forestry (CIF). In 1950, the Federal Minister of Lands and Forests incorporated this successor, and the CIF took over as the national membership of forest practitioners. To this day the objectives of the CIF include the advancement of stewardship of Canada's forest resources, the provision of national leadership in forestry, the promotion of competence among forestry professionals, and the development of public awareness of Canadian and international forestry issues. The Canadian Forestry Institute - Cariboo Section was established ca. 1951 and encompasses the entire northern half of the province of British Columbia.

Canadian National Railway

  • Corporate body
  • 1919-

Canadian National Railway (CN) was incorporated as a Crown corporation on the 6th of June 1919. It is the longest railway system and the only transcontinental railway in North America. Canadian National originated from five railways: the Grand Trunk Railway, the Intercolonial Railway, the Canadian Northern Railway, the National Trans Continental Railway, and the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway (1917-1923). The conglomeration came about after a Royal Commission was called in 1917, which recommended the nationalization of all the railways except the Canadian Pacific Railway. During the depression of the 1930s there was a loss in traffic volume partially due to highway and air traffic increases, which led to a decrease in wages and employment. From the 1950s to 1960s, Canadian National began to modernize and converted to diesel locomotives and electronic signaling. The head office was also moved to Montréal. By 1989 Canadian National divested its non-rail business and abandoned thousands of kilometers of track, networks, and branch lines across the country to become a primarily freight rail company. In 1995 Canadian National was privatized and many of its shares purchased by American investors; however, the headquarters remained in Montréal to ensure that Canadian National remained a Canadian corporation.

Canadian Pacific Railway

  • Corporate body
  • 1881-

Canadian Pacific Railway was founded in 1881 to link Canada's populated Eastern centres with the vast potential of its relatively unpopulated West. On Nov. 7, 1885, the Eastern and Western portions of the Canadian Pacific Railway met at Craigellachie, B.C., where Donald A. Smith drove the last spike. The cost of construction almost broke the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, but within three years of the first transcontinental train leaving Montreal and Toronto for Port Moody on June 28, 1886, the railway's financial house was once again in order and CPR began paying dividends again. By 1889, the railway extended from coast to coast and the enterprise had expanded to include a wide range of related and unrelated businesses.

CPR had been involved in land settlement and land sales as early as September 1881. The company also erected telegraph lines right alongside the main transcontinental line, transmitting its first commercial telegram in 1882. The same year also marked CPR's entry into the express shipment business, with the acquisition of the Dominion Express Company. CPR started building some of its own steam locomotives as early as 1883 and would later build its own passenger cars, making it second only on the continent to the Pullman Company of Chicago, Illinois.

With the outbreak of World War II, the entire Canadian Pacific network was put at the disposal of the war effort. On land, CPR moved 307 million tons of freight and 86 million passengers, including 280,000 military personnel. At sea 22 CPR ships went to war where 12 of them were sunk. In the air, CPR pioneered the "Atlantic Bridge" – a massive undertaking that saw the transatlantic ferrying of bombers from Canada to Britain.

In the 1950s, CPR chief Norris R. Crump repatriated the company, putting a majority of shares back in the hands of Canadian stockholders. He also presided over complete dieselization of the company's fleet of locomotives and managed a huge expansion into non-transportation sectors, setting up Canadian Pacific Investments in 1962.

Today, CPR's 14,000-mile network extends from the Port of Vancouver in the Canada's West to The Port of Montreal in Canada's East, and to the U.S. industrial centers of Chicago, Newark, Philadelphia, Washington, New York City and Buffalo.

Cassiar Asbestos Corporation Ltd.

  • 2000.1
  • Corporate body
  • 3 April 1952 - 15 March 1993

Cassiar Asbestos Corporation Limited (CAC) was established in 1951 by the parent company Conwest Exploration Company Limited. CAC opened an asbestos mine and mill in 1952 in northern BC and constructed a townsite for its workers. Because Cassiar was unincorporated, CAC provided municipal services (sewer, water, electricity, medical, educational, community and retail.) Cassiar town holdings include administrative, housing, school, hospital, and retail store records. For 40 years Cassiar was a thriving one-industry town of 1200+ people. In the late 1950s, CAC began active efforts to find and acquire another asbestos deposit for the company. In 1957 such a deposit was discovered in the Yukon Territory, and acquired by CAC. By 1967 CAC had begun construction of a second mine, plant, and town in what became known as Clinton Creek. For most of its history the Cassiar operation was an open-pit mine, but in 1988 it began construction of an underground mine which became operational in 1990. The unprofitability of this underground operation contributed to the corporation’s bankruptcy in 1992. Most employees were laid off and in September the entire town, mine, and mill infrastructure was auctioned off by Maynard Industries, Vancouver.

Charles E. Goad Company

  • Corporate body
  • 1875-1975

The Charles E. Goad map making company was established in Montreal, Quebec, in 1875. In its business of creating fire insurance plans, the Charles E. Goad map making company was the most comprehensive company in its coverage of Canada. By 1885, the company was firmly established in Canada and by 1910, Goad and his surveyors had created fire insurance plans for more than 1300 Canadian communities. When Charles E. Goad died that same year, the company was taken over by his three sons, who continued to run the business under the name Chas. E. Goad Company. In 1911 an agreement was reached between the Chas. E. Goad Company and the Canadian Fire Underwriters' Association, by which the Goad Company was to create and revise plans for the Association exclusively. The Canadian Fire Underwriters' Association was founded in 1883 for the purpose of standardizing fire insurance rules. This agreement ended in 1917, and in 1918, the Canadian Fire Underwriters' Association established its own plan making department. It was named the Underwriters' Survey Bureau Limited. At the same time, the Bureau acquired the exclusive rights from the Chas. E. Goad Company to revise and reprint the Goad plans. The Goad Company, which continued to exist until 1930, stopped producing fire insurance plans. In March 1931, the Underwriters' Survey Bureau purchased all of the assets of the Chas. E. Goad Company, including copyright. The Underwriters' Survey Bureau continued to produce fire insurance plans for the cities and towns in Ontario, Quebec, and the Maritimes. The Canadian Fire Underwriters' Association remained responsible for the production of plans in the western provinces and the B.C. Underwriters' Association was responsible for plans in British Columbia. In 1960, these regional operations were amalgamated with the production of plans under the centralized Plan Division of the Canadian Underwriters' Association. In 1975, the Association changed its name to the Insurer's Advisory Organization, and at the same time, decided to cease fire insurance plan production and sell all plan inventory. This was the end of 100 years of continuous fire insurance plan production in Canada.

College of New Caledonia

  • Corporate body
  • 1969 -

The College of New Caledonia (CNC) is a publicly-funded post-secondary institution. It was established in Prince George, BC in 1969, and has since expanded across central British Columbia, with campuses in Prince George, Quesnel, Mackenzie, Burns Lake, Valemount, Fort St. James, Fraser Lake and Vanderhoof.

CNC enrolls about 5,000 students each year (all campuses) in approximately 90 distinct programs in business and management, community and continuing education, health sciences, adult basic education / upgrading, trades and industry, social services, and technologies. As well, CNC offers university-level classes leading to degrees and professional programs in many subjects.

Columbia Cellulose Company, Limited

  • Corporate body
  • 1946-1973

The Columbia Cellulose Company, Limited was established under the name Port Edward Development Company, Limited in 1946 by the Celanese Corporation of America to produce high alpha wood pulp. The name was changed to the Port Edward Cellulose Company, Limited in 1947 and was finally changed to the present name in 1948. The first mill was constructed at Prince Rupert after the company was granted Tree Farm Licence (TFL) No. 1 in 1948. Celgar Development Company (more commonly known as Celgar Limited), a subsidiary of Columbia Cellulose, purchased three sawmill operations in the Arrow Lakes region at Nakusp and Castlegar in the early 1950s. The sawmills at Castlegar were transformed into an updated sawmill, a kraft mill, and a pulp mill. Columbia Cellulose was granted TFL No. 23 in July, 1955 and Nakusp was the headquarters for the woods operations in the interior with the Arrow Lakes system and tributary rivers providing waterways for booming and towing to the mills at Castlegar. The Columbia Cellulose Company added Prince Rupert Construction Limited (incorporated 1954) as a subsidiary in 1958 along with Skeena Logging Equipment Limited that same year. More mills in the interior were opened and in 1964 Columbia Cellulose began working with Svenka Cellulosa Aktiebolaget, a large Swedish manufacturer of forest products in the province, to build Skeena Kraft Limited. Skeena Kraft Limited was granted TFL No. 40 and Skeena Kraft headquartered its operations in Terrace. In 1965, Columbia Cellulose bought Calum Lumber Limited in Prince Rupert and acquired Columbia Pulp Sales Limited within the next two years. The declining Columbia Cellulose Company was taken over by the government of British Columbia in 1973 and was the basis for a new company: Canadian Cellulose Company, Limited. The name was changed again in 1981 to BC Timber Ltd.

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development

  • Corporate body
  • 1966-

In 1755, the British Crown established the British Indian Department, and responsibility for Indian Affairs rested on the Superintendents of Indian Affairs from 1755 to 1841. After 1843, the Governors General held control of Indian Affairs, but usually delegated much of their responsibility to a series of Civil Secretaries. In 1860, the responsibility for Indian affairs was transferred from the government of Great Britain to the Province of Canada and the responsibility for Indian Affairs was given to the Crown Lands Department Commissions Responsible for Indian Affairs.

The federal government's legislative responsibilities for Indians and Inuit derive from section 91(24) of the Constitution Act, 1867 and responsibility was given to the Secretary of State for the Provinces Responsible for Indian Affairs. In 1876, the Indian Act, which remains the major expression of federal jurisdiction in this area, was passed and a series of treaties were concluded between Canada and the various Indian bands across the country. The responsibility for Indian Affairs and Northern Development rested with various government departments between 1873 and 1966. The Minister of the Interior also held the position of Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs after the Indian Affairs Department was established in 1880. In 1939, federal jurisdiction for Indian peoples was interpreted by the courts to apply to the Inuit. A revised Indian Act was passed in 1951.

From 1950 to 1965, the Indian Affairs portfolio was carried by the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration. On October 1, 1966, the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development was created as a result of the Government Organization Act, 1966. Effective June 13, 2011, the department was renamed the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.

The Northern Development part of the department has its origins in the Department of the Interior, a body created by then Prime Minister John A. Macdonald for the purpose of administering the Dominion Lands Act of 1872. When the Department of the Interior dissolved in 1936 (with the Natural Resources Acts transferring control over natural resources to the Prairie provinces), Indian Affairs fell under the purview of the Department of Mines and Resources. However, the need for social and health-care services in the North led to the establishment of the Northern Administration and Lands branch in 1951, which led to the creation of the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources in 1953. This became the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development in 1966 and then the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development in 2011.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

  • Corporate body
  • 1968-

The Department of Marine and Fisheries was created on July 1, 1867, although it did not receive legislative authority until May 22, 1868.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada, frequently referred to as DFO (Department of Fisheries and Oceans), is responsible for developing and implementing policies and programs in support of Canada’s scientific, ecological, social and economic interests in oceans and fresh waters. The Department’s guiding legislation includes the Oceans Act, which charges the Minister with leading oceans management and providing coast guard and hydrographic services on behalf of the Government of Canada, and the Fisheries Act, which confers responsibility to the Minister for the management of fisheries, habitat and aquaculture. The Department is also one of the three responsible authorities under the Species at Risk Act.Its mandate includes responsibility for the conservation and sustainable use of Canada's fisheries resources while continuing to provide safe, effective and environmentally sound marine services that are responsive to the needs of Canadians in a global economy.

DFO is responsible for several organizations, including the Canadian Coast Guard and the Canadian Hydrographic Service.

Fraser Basin Council

  • Corporate body
  • 1997-

The Fraser Basin Council (FBC) is a non-profit society that advances sustainability in the Fraser River Basin and across BC. Established in 1997, the Council is a collaboration of four orders of government (Federal, Provincial, Local and First Nations) and those from the private sector and civil society. FBC helps bring people together to find solutions to sustainability issues, and works on such issues as flood management, smart planning for communities, climate change action and adaptation, air quality, green fleets, sustainable watersheds and fisheries, and sustainability reporting and education.

Fraser Inc.

  • Corporate body
  • 1877-1987

Fraser Companies Ltd. was a pulp, paper and lumber producer with operations in New Brunswick and Maine.

In April 1974, Noranda, through its subsidiary Northwood Mills, made a successful public offer to acquire 51% of the shares of Fraser Companies, Ltd.

After this acquisition, Fraser Inc. modernized and extended its the bisulphite plant (1976-1979), renovated its the paperboard mill (1988), and the installed high pressure steam pipelines linking the Edmundston pulp mill to Fraser Paper of Madawaska, Maine (1981-1982). The goal of these improvements was to increase production, reduce costs, conform to the new environment protection standards, and an increased ability to compete on the North American markets.

In addition to the Edmundston and Madawaska mills, Fraser Inc. owned mills in Atholville, Kedgwick, Plaster Rock and Thorold, Ontario. The company managed more than 1.8 millions acres of woodland concessions.

In May 1987, Fraser Inc. was amalgamated into Noranda Forest Inc.

Sources:
Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Noranda Mines Limited: A Corporate Background Report. 1976. p. 94-95.

http://www.toucherdubois.ca/tdb/result_item.php?item=6632&lang=en

Fyfe Lake Sawmill

  • Corporate body
  • [between 1950 and 1965]

Fyfe Lake Sawmill, also referred to as Fyfe Lake Fir, operated at Fyfe Lake, 32 km Southwest of Prince George near West Lake Provincial Park, during the 1950s. The lumber company was owned and operated by the Bachand Family, primarily Henri Bachand, and produced lumber for domestic sale. The sawmill closed sometime in the early 1960s and many families, who had developed a small community at Fyfe Lake, moved into Prince George and the surrounding area.

Geological Survey of Canada

  • Corporate body
  • 1842-

The Legislature of the Province of Canada (now parts of Ontario and Quebec) created the Geological Survey of Canada in 1842. The first director was William Logan, a Montréal citizen educated in Scotland. The headquarters for the Survey was in Montréal where Logan took on an assistant named Alexander Murray, a formal naval officer. Together, they began the task of mapping out the geology of a country that stretched from 5514 kilometres between coasts. The Geological Survey of Canada continued to expand into an organization with many employees conducting rigorous exploration, making maps, producing reports, and maintaining a public museum. Confederation in 1867 brought new challenges to the Geological Survey. The new provinces of Manitoba, British Columbia, and Prince Edward Island increased the area of operations. In 1871 the Survey mounted an expedition to investigate the geology and mineral resources along the proposed railroad routes. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company. This immense area stretched across the country from Ontario to the Rockies and north to the Arctic. This was the beginning of the age of Canadian exploration. The uncharted areas of the west and arctic were difficult and dangerous but exciting. The Survey collected observations on geology, botany, and zoology.

Gitxsan Nation

  • Corporate body
  • Unknown

Gitxsan (also spelled Gitksan) are an indigenous people whose home territory comprises most of the area known as the Skeena Country in English (Git: means "people of" and Xsan: means "the River of Mist"). Gitksan territory encompasses approximately 53,000 square kilometers of land, from the basin of the upper Skeena River from about Legate Creek to the Skeena's headwaters and its surrounding tributaries. Part of the Tsimshianic language group, their culture is considered to be part of the civilization of the Pacific Northwest Coast, although their territory lies in the Interior rather than on the Coast. They were at one time also known as the Interior Tsimshian, a term which also included the Nisga'a, the Gitxsan's neighbours to the north. Their neighbours to the west are the Tsimshian (aka the Coast Tsimshian) while to the east the Wet'suwet'en, an Athapaskan people, with whom they have a long and deep relationship and shared political and cultural community.

Haida Nation

  • 2009.7
  • Corporate body
  • Unknown-

Haida people have occupied Haida Gwaii (also known as the Queen Charlotte Islands) since time immemorial. Their traditional territory encompasses parts of southern Alaska, the archipelago of Haida Gwaii and its surrounding waters.

Hixon Women's Institute

  • Corporate body
  • 1936-

In 1936, the Woodpecker and United Districts Women's Institute was established in the Central Interior region of British Columbia, just outside of Prince George. In 1955 it became known as the Woodpecker-Hixon Women's Institute, and from 1963 onwards has been called the Hixon Women's Institute. In 1992, with the assistance of Moreen Thorp, Bernice Monroe, Leslie Kaehn, the Hixon Women's Institute undertook a history project which resulted in the publication of “Footsteps of our heritage : a history of Hixon, Woodpecker, Strathnaver”. (For more information see also: “Hixon Women's Institute fonds : 1936-1976” held at the British Columbia Archives)

Industrial Forest Services Ltd.

  • Corporate body
  • 1952-

Industrial Forestry Service Ltd. (IFS) is a natural resource-based consulting firm with offices in both Prince George and Dawson Creek, BC, which specializes in multi-phase resource development activities, forest seedling production and silviculture research. IFS has also been involved with land and resource development in British Columbia for over 50 years and provides the following services: stream classification, GPS surveys, access development, road and bridge engineering, cruising and timber evaluation and mapping. (For more information please see company website: http://www.industrialforestry.ca/index.shtml )

Interior University Society

  • Corporate body
  • 1987-

The Interior University Society was incorporated in 1987 after organizational efforts initiated by Tom Steadman, Bryson Stone and Charles McCaffray. The society’s objectives were to promote the establishment of a university in Prince George, B.C., later to be known as the University of Northern British Columbia. The first president of the society was Prince George lawyer W. Murray Sadler. The Society launched a membership campaign in 1987, retained the services of Dr. Urban Dahllof to undertake a feasibility study, and conducted a survey to determine the support level in northern B.C. for a university. In October, 1988, the society’s proposals and studies were presented to the provincial cabinet. In 1989, an Implementation Planning Group was established, chaired by Horst Sander. The planning group completed its study and reported to the government in December of 1989, recommending a full-status university be established in the north.

Interior University Society Implementation Planning Group

  • Corporate body
  • 1989-

The Interior University Society was incorporated in 1987 after organizational efforts initiated by Tom Steadman, Bryson Stone and Charles McCaffray. The society’s objectives were to promote the establishment of a university in Prince George, B.C., later to be known as the University of Northern British Columbia. The first president of the society was Prince George lawyer W. Murray Sadler. The Society launched a membership campaign in 1987, retained the services of Dr. Urban Dahllof to undertake a feasibility study, and conducted a survey to determine the support level in northern B.C. for a university. In October, 1988, the society’s proposals and studies were presented to the provincial cabinet. In 1989, an Implementation Planning Group was established, chaired by Horst Sander. The planning group completed its study and reported to the government in December of 1989, recommending a full-status university be established in the north.

International Forests Products

  • Corporate body
  • [193-?]-

1930s began with a sawmill in Whonnock, BC.
1963 incorporated as Yorkston Lumber Co.
1963 name changed to Whonnock Lumber Co.
1967 converted to a public company.
1967 name changed to Whonnock Industries.
1979 Sauder Industries acquired a controlling interest in Interfor (since transferred to the Sauder family's Mountclair Investment Corporation holding company).
1988 name changed to International Forest Products Ltd.
1995 buy Weldwood Operation
1996 close Bay Lumber Operation
2000 sell Flavelle Mill
2001 Buy Primex Mills
2001 Close Fraser Mill
2002 Close MacDonald Operation/Open Sumas Operation
2004 Close Squamish Operation
2005 Buy Crown Mills
2005 Buy Floragon Mills
2005 Close Marysville and Field Operations
2006 Sell Saltar and MacKenzie Operations
2008 Buy Portac
2008 Close Queensborough Operations

James Maclaren Industries Inc.

  • Corporate body
  • 1895-

• 1864 Purchase by James Maclaren of the sawmill located on the west side of the Lièvre River, from the Baxter Bowman Estate.
• 1876 Maclaren receives the Award of Excellence at the Philadelphia World's Fair for the products displayed at the event.
• 1885 Opening of a new warehouse at Mont-Laurier.
• 1889 Founded by James Maclaren and James G. Ross, The North Pacific Lumber Company starts up a sawmill at Barnett, British Columbia.
• 1892 James Maclaren, founder of Maclaren, dies, leaving behind "The Estate of James Maclaren".
• 1893 Maclaren receives the Award of Excellence of the Chicago World's Fair for the products displayed at the event.
• 1894 Founding of the "Albert Maclaren Electric Light Company".
• 1895 Incorporation of "THE JAMES MACLAREN CO. LTD.", June 28th.
• 1900 First meeting of the Board of Directors of "THE JAMES MACLAREN CO. LTD.". James Maclaren's five sons, David, Alexander, John, James Barnet and Albert bought the estate, the sawmills, the properties and the woodland concessions.
• 1901 Purchase by the Company of the "Ross Bros." sawmill, located on the east side of the Lièvre River at Buckingham.
• 1901-02 Construction and start-up of a mechanical pulp mill with a daily production capacity of 60 tons.
• 1903 Purchase of the hydraulic rights owned by Sir Edward Andrew Stuart downstream from Buckingham.
• 1906 Opening of a new log piling depot, south of the Buckingham Roman Catholic Cemetery, along present Hwy 309, between Masson and Buckingham.
• 1907 Modernization of the sawmill located on the east side of the river in Buckingham.
• 1911 Purchase of the "Lièvre River Telephone Co.".
• 1912 Increase in the production of mechanical pulp to 90 tons per day,
• 1913 Shutdown of the Barnett sawmill in B. C.
• 1913 Purchase of the 100 sq. mi. Sharples woodland concessions along the Lièvre River.
• 1913 Construction of a retaining dyke and log slide to bypass High Falls on the Lièvre River.
• 1922 The sawmill on the west side of the river at Buckingham is demolished to make way for a new mill (Head Works and Pulpwood).
• 1928-30 Construction of a newsprint mill with a production capacity of 350 tons per day and a chemical pulp mill at Masson.
• 1928-30 Renovation and expansion of the mechanical pulp mill capable of producing 300 tons per day at Buckingham.
• 1928-30 The mechanical pulp was carried from Buckingham to the Masson plant via a pipeline located in a north-south axis between Georges Street and the river. The 4-foot logs used to make chemical pulp were floated down a log slide from Buckingham to Masson. Both systems spanned a distance of three miles.
• 1928-30 Construction of a dam and hydro-electric generating station at High Falls, on the Lièvre as well as the construction of a dam and hydro-electric generating station at Masson.
• 1941 Construction of the Mitchinamekus dam.
• 1954 Construction of the Kiamika dam.
• 1956-59 Construction of a mechanical pulp mill at Masson.
• 1957 Construction of a hydro-electric generating station at Dufferin Falls, on the Lièvre at Buckingham.
• 1959 Shutdown of the mechanical pulp mill at Buckingham.
• 1959 Construction of a debarking and slashing mill at Poupore, upstream from Buckingham, on the Lièvre.
• 1964 Purchase of the Kraft pulp mill and other installations from the Singer Company at Thurso.
• 1965 Purchase of "Canadian Hardwood Limited", "Buckingham Lumber Ltd." and "Quebec Hardwood Limited".
• 1968 Sale of the affiliate Company "Lièvre River Telephone Company" to Télébec .
• 1970 Purchase of the Allaire sawmill at Notre-Dame-du-Laus.
• 1974 Purchase of 50 % of Sogefor Ltd’s assets in Lac-des-Îles.
• 1979 Installation of solar heating panels at the Masson plant.
• 1980 Acquisition of the Maclaren Company by Noranda Inc.
• 1981 Modernization of the bisulfite plant at the Masson newsprint plant, allowing the recovery of 80 percent rather than 50 percent of fibbers, and a reduction of suspended solids in the water returned to the river.
• 1983 Modernization of $61 million at the Kraft pulp mill in Thurso, comprising of the installation of a new recovery boiler and a precipitator.
• 1985 Construction and installation of a new newsprint machine with a total capacity of production of 750 metric tons per day.
• 1988 Increase of production capacity at the Kraft pulp mill in Thurso: from 365 tons to 580 tons per day. Cost of the project: $175 million.
• 1988 Modernization of the corporate office of the Company at Masson.
• 1988 Announcement of the construction of a clarifier at a cost of $7 million at the newsprint mill.
• 1988 Announcement of a $27 million expansion project of the Masson newsprint plant to increase production from 180,000 to 209,000 metric tons par year.
• 1990 Purchase of Normick-Perron.
• 1990 Modernisation and expansion at the Kraft Pulp Mill in Thurso.
• 1991 Announcement of the start-up of a newsprint deinking plant at Cap-de-la-Madeleine, jointly with Cascades and Donohue.
• 1993 Introduction of recycled pulp in the newsprint manufacturing process at the Masson plant
• 1993 The Kraft pulp division celebrates its 35th anniversary with the theme "35 years of efficiency and improvement... and counting"
• 1993 Logging operations on the Lièvre River are abandoned and a new system for log conversion and storage is introduced at the newsprint mill at a cost of $ 3.8 million
• 1994 Announcement of a $70 million investment in water treatment plants at Maclaren plants both in Masson and Thurso.
• 1994 With the end of logging operations on the Lièvre River, the 64-year old log slide used to float the logs from Buckingham to the Masson plant is now obsolete and consequently dismantled.
• 1994 Investment of $44 million for the modernization of the wood yard at the Kraft pulp mill in Thurso resulting in a pulp of superior quality.
• 1994 The Normick-Perron group, until now under the Maclaren umbrella, will come under the authority of Norbord, another division of Noranda Forest.
• 1995 In conformity with its environmental policy and the optimization of its resources, Maclaren announces that 80 tons a day of solid waste from the Masson newsprint plant will be turned into compost.
• 1995 Maclaren celebrates its 100th anniversary of incorporation and adopts a new corporate symbol.
• 1997 Noranda Forest, which later became Nexfor surprised everybody by announcing the sale of its newsprint mills in Masson.
• 1998 Noranda Forest finally finds a buyer for it's Masson newsprint mill, Papier Mason Ltée
• 1999 Nexfor sell it’s Hydro-Electric operations to Great Lakes Hydro in Trust,the Maclaren Hydro Division becomes a subsidiary of Great Lakes Power.
• 2000 On the 7th of January, Nexfor, a Toronto firm, announces the sale of its Kraft Division in Thurso, thus becoming part of its Fraser Paper subsidiary.

Source: André Joyce http://maclaren.iquebec.com

John Hart Highway

  • 2005.3
  • Corporate body
  • 1945 -

This 405 km long stretch of Highway 97, named for former British Columbia Premier John Hart, begins at Prince George, traveling for 152 km north through the small hamlet of Summit Lake, which is situated at the Continental Divide, as well as, through Crooked River Provincial Park, Bear Lake and McLeod Lake, to its intersection with Highway 39. It then journeys northeast another 150 km through the Continental Divide at which point the time zone changes from Pacific Time to Mountain Time. After emerging from the Pine Pass, the highway intersects with Highway 29 at the town of Chetwynd. After a trek of another 97 km east, the Hart Highway terminates at Dawson Creek, BC.

Kemano Completion Project

  • Corporate body
  • 1989-1995

In 1979, Alcan announced that they would use the rest of the water that the 1950 Agreement decreed the Company could use and they applied to the Utilities Commission for an Energy Project Certificate to start Kemano II. This declaration led to a legal skirmish between Alcan and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) over the potentially hazardous water levels for the migrating salmon. The issue was resolved with the 1987 Settlement Agreement signed on September 14th between Alcan, the Government of British Columbia, and the Federal Government, which confirmed that the Company had the legal right to use more water from the Nechako River. However, Alcan agreed to give up water rights to the Nanika River and the Cheslatta River while setting up a program to keep an eye on the fish habitats. This agreement resulted in the Kemano Completion Project (KCP), which was a scaled down version of Kemano II. In 1989, a Collective Labour Agreement was signed between the Allied Hydro Council and the Kemano Completion Project Employers’ Association, signifying the launch of KCP.

The project had an initial estimated cost of $800 million and would increase Kemano’s power generating capabilities by 75 percent. It consisted of five components: building a cold water release facility at Kenney Dam to increase chances of survival for Chinook and sockeye salmon; dredging the Tahtsa narrows an increase water-flow through the Nechako Reservoir; installing four more generators in Kemano; building another 68 km transmission line between Kitimat and Kemano; and building an additional 16 km power tunnel parallel to the existing tunnel through Mount DuBose.

However, not all British Columbians were ecstatic about the KCP. Some of the major opponents to this project were environmentalists, the fishing industries, wildlife activists, and First Nations peoples such as the Haisla and Carrier-Sekani Tribal Council. Some of the environmental groups included “A River Forever” and “Rivers Defence Coalition”. An organization called “Save the Bulkley” was formed by residents from Smithers, Telkwa, and Quick areas to oppose the KCP.

On June 16th, 1992, Premier Mike Harcourt commissioned Murray Rankin and Arvay Finlay to create a report on the KCP, “Alcan’s Kemano Project: Options and Recommendations”. This report was completed in October of that year and recommended that the Government of British Columbia conducts a public review on the KCP. Thus, the British Columbia Utilities Commission public review of the KCP was initiated in January of 1993. That same year, Alcan told the provincial government that they were short of $350 million in their estimated cost for KCP and would need more power revenues. Two years later, on January 23rd, Premier Harcourt decided to cancel KCP.

Liberal Party of Canada

  • Corporate body
  • 1867-

The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest federally registered party in Canada. In the conventional political spectrum, the party sits between the centre and the centre-left. Historically the Liberal Party has positioned itself to the left of the Conservative Party and to the right of the New Democratic Party (NDP). The party dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for almost 69 years in the 20th century, more than any other party in a developed country.

MacMillan Bloedel Ltd.

  • Corporate body
  • 1908-1999

MacMillan Bloedel Limited was formed through the merger of three smaller forestry companies in 1951 and 1959: the Powell River Company, the Bloedel Stewart Welch Company, and the H.R. MacMillan Company. MacMillan Bloedel Limited was bought by Weyerhaeuser in 1999.

McGregor Model Forest Association

  • Corporate body
  • 1992-2007

The McGregor Model Forest Association (MMFA) was established in 1992 by the Government of Canada under the Canadian Forest Service’s Model Forest Program which was established across the country to examine and test principals of sustainable forest management. The MMFA operated successfully for over 15 years to support research, development of integrated forest management models, forest education and facilitation of collaborative decision-making. The Association’s approximately 50 members included communities, First Nations, industry, government and non-government representatives, as well as individual scientists and practitioners. The MMFA was an active participant in the Canadian and International Model Forest Networks, and also carried out projects in Russia on behalf of the Canadian International Development Agency. The Model Forest Program concluded in 2007, and was replaced by the Forest Communities Program. This new program was intended to facilitate the development and sharing of knowledge, tools and practices to empower forest-based communities to participate in informed decision-making on the forest land base, allowing communities to sustain and grow forest resource benefits while capitalizing on emerging forest-based opportunities. During this changeover, many of the existing Model Forests continued their operations under this new program, including the MMFA, while others continued their operations through partner and other funding sources, and some closed their doors. In October 2007, MMFA was combined with the Integrated Resource Management Partnership of Northern British Columbia (the “IRM Partnership”) into the Resources North Association - a new society whose aim it was to strengthen the previous relationship between the groups and to capitalize on their synergies.

Metis Nation

  • Corporate body
  • [before 1800]-

The Métis are one of the Aboriginal peoples in Canada who trace their descent to mixed First Nations and European heritage. The term was historically a catch-all describing the offspring of any such union, but within generations the culture syncretised into what is today a distinct aboriginal group, with formal recognition equal to that of the Inuit and First Nations. At one time there was an important distinction between French Métis born of francophone voyageur fathers, and the Anglo-Métis or Countryborn descended from Scottish fathers. Today these two cultures have essentially coalesced into one Métis tradition.

Almost 400,000 people self-identify as Métis in Canada. The Supreme Court of Canada outlined three broad factors to identify Métis rights-holders: self-identification as a Métis individual; ancestral connection to an historic Métis community; and acceptance by a Métis community.

Nechako Environmental Coalition

  • Corporate body
  • 1988-[1996?]

The Nechako Environmental Coalition was involved in several environmental health legislation campaigns, which included the development of the National Pollutants Release Inventory, achieving federal legislation for dioxins and furans, preventing diversion the Nechako River from industrial diversion and regulation of formaldehyde emissions in the MDF industry.

In 1996, the Nechako Environmental Coalition made an appeal to the Deputy Director of Waste Management regarding the upholding of the issuance of a waste management permit to Canadian Forest Products Ltd. (Canfor), which allowed Canfor to discharge emissions to the air from a proposed medium density fibre board (MDF) plant in Prince George.

New Democratic Party (NDP)

  • Corporate body
  • 1961-

In 1956, after the birth of the Canadian Labour Congress (CLC) by a merger of two previous labour congresses, negotiations began between the CLC and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) to bring about an alliance between organized labour and the political left in Canada. In 1958 a joint CCF-CLC committee, the National Committee for the New Party (NCNP), was formed to create a "new" social-democratic political party, with ten members from each group. The NCNP spent the next three years laying down the foundations of the New Party. During this process, a large number of New Party Clubs were established to allow like-minded Canadians to join in its founding, and six representatives from New Party Clubs were added to the National Committee. In 1961, at the end of a five-day long Founding Convention which established its principles, policies and structures, the New Democratic Party was born and Tommy Douglas, the long-time CCF Premier of Saskatchewan, was elected its first leader.

Noranda Inc.

  • Corporate body
  • 1922-2005

Noranda was incorporated in 1922 as Noranda Mines under the leadership of James Y. Murdoch. Noranda merged with Falconbridge in 2005 and continued under the name Falconbridge Limited, ending the Noranda name.

Noranda Metal Industries

  • Corporate body
  • 1972?-1988?

Noranda Metal Industries was the successor to Noranda Copper and Brass and Noranda Copper Mills. It produced copper and copper-based alloy products in the form of sheet, strip, rod and tube in three plants across Canada. Its principle markets were the automobile industry and the house construction industry. The company consumed significant quantities of copper and lesser amounts of other metals such as zinc. In 1974, it reported that in excess of 54,000 tons of metal were processed.

In addition to its operations in Canada, Noranda Metal Industries owned two plants in the United States, one of which closed circa 1975, and another which had an interest in a mill in Colombia. In an effort to reduce its dependence on the highly cyclical copper and brass business, Noranda Metal Industries constructed a $23.5 million plant at Arnprior, Ontario to produce zirconium alloy sheathing and pressure tubes for use in nuclear reactors. The plant was built in anticipation of a rapidly-growing requirement for those products as Canadian utilities, particularly Ontario Hydro, would be accelerating their nuclear power construction programmes. Zirconium tubes were sold directly to utilities for use in conducting steam from the reactors, and to fuel cell manufacturers such as General Electric and Westinghouse Electric.

Source: Source: Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration, Noranda Mines Limited: A Corporate Background Report. 1976. pp. 56-57.

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