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2024.2 · Collection · 1997-2002

This collection encompasses the records of the eJournal "It's Still Winter: A Web Journal of Contemporary Canadian Poetry and Poetics", which was co-published online by College of New Caledonia and the University of Northern British Columbia between 1997 and 2002. The editors of the journal were Don Precosky and Barry McKinnon. The journal published the work of poets from across Canada, but the majority were from northern British Columbia.

The collection contains analogue reproductions of the eJournal issues, drafts and manuscript submissions to the eJournal, and digital records relating to the eJournal (including the website files for the online eJournal).

2023.2.2.12 · Subseries · 2007-2009
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

A comparative study of grassland soils at 3 sites in northwestern BC and southern Yukon was published as:
Sanborn, P. 2010. Topographically controlled grassland soils in the Boreal Cordillera ecozone, northwestern Canada. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 90: 89-101.

This grew out of a field trip with Ministry of Forests range personnel to the Stikine and Tuya River valleys, near Telegraph Creek BC on August 27-28, 2007. (Two pedons were sampled in 2007, BC07-03 and BC07-04, but those results were not included in the paper.)

In August 2008, Dr. Paul Sanborn returned to the Stikine to sample pedon BC08-06, after field work in Yukon which collected the other two pedons used in the paper, from near Carmacks (Y08-39) and Kluane Lake (Y08-41). (An additional pedon from Kluane, Y08-43, was sampled and analyzed, but it was from a forested site and was not included in the paper.)

Klutlan Glacier soils
2023.2.2.13 · Subseries · 2007-2010
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

With the assistance of the Yukon Geological Survey, Dr. Paul Sanborn was able to visit the terminus of the Klutlan Glacier, a major outlet glacier which originates in the Alaska portion of the St. Elias Mountains. The stagnant terminus has a thick cover of debris, including a large component of White River tephra, providing enough soil material to support a boreal forest. Field work occurred on July 8, 2007, and results were published as:

Sanborn, P. 2010. Soil formation on supraglacial tephra deposits, Klutlan Glacier, Yukon Territory. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 90: 611-618.

2023. · Item · Aug. 2007
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

This document contains transcribed August 2007 field notes from 5 observation sites for Sanborn's comparative study of grassland soils in the Boreal Cordillera ecozone.

2023. · Item · 1996
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

The BC Ministry of Forest's EP 1148 Long-term Soil Productivity (LTSP) study addresses two key factors— soil porosity and site organic matter—that potentially limit tree growth and site productivity in the timber-harvesting land base and that can be affected by forestry operations.

This establishment report for EP 1148, "The effects of soil compaction and organic matter retention on long-term soil productivity in British Columbia (Experimental Project 1148)", is accompanied by a floppy disk containing 12 data sets (see 2023.

History of the Quest Club
2001.1.077 · Item · 1999
Part of NBCA Document and Ephemera Collection

This 75th anniversary history of the Quest Club presented by Margaret Moffat and Joan Grainger at a celebratory luncheon held at Esther's Inn on October 12th, 1999 was gleaned from the History of the Quest Club prepared by Joy McMillan and Joan Grainger in 1984 for the 60th Anniversary of the Quest Club, and from Minutes of the Quest Club meetings up to 1999.

The Quest Club was started by six Prince George women who quested for more information in all fields of knowledge.

2008.27.7 · File · 1909, 1934, 1938
Part of Knox McCusker Collection

File consists of the following original items:

  • Letter to G.G. Aitken from K.F. McCusker (Jan. 9, 1934)
  • Letter to G.G. Aitken from K.F. McCusker (June 20, 1934)
  • Letter to G.G. Aitken from K.F. McCusker (May. 9, 1938)
  • Certificate no. 484 bestowed upon Knox Freeman McCusker enabling him to be admitted as an Articled Pupil with the Dominion Lands Surveyors. (Feb. 22, 1909)
General correspondence
2008.27.6 · File · 1931-1955
Part of Knox McCusker Collection

File consists of the following photocopied items:

  • Letter to Mrs. J. Norman Henry from G.G. Aitken, Chief Geographer (May 22, 1935)
  • Memorandum to Mr. F.H. Peters, Surveyor General (Topographical Survey of Canada) from R. W. Cautley, Acting Chief of Control Surveys (Dec. 17, 1931)
  • Letter to Mr. F.H. Peters, Surveyor General from F.C. Green, Surveyor General (June 22, 1932)
  • Letter to Mr. F.H. Peters, Surveyor General from Knox McCusker (Dec. 8, 1931)
  • Letter to Mr. F.H. Peters, Surveyor General from Knox McCusker (Dec. 2, 1931)
  • Letter to Mr. F.H. Peters, Surveyor General from Knox McCusker (Oct. 2, 1931)
  • Letter to unknown recipient from J. Norman Henry (Oct. 15, 1931)
  • Letter to K.F. McCusker from G.G.A. (G.G. Aitken?) Member on Geographic Board of Canada Representing B.C. (June 2, 1938)
  • Letter to unknown recipient from Gwen McCusker (Sept. 5, 1944)
  • Letter to Mrs. McCusker from Sgd. J. Clarke Williams on the occasion of the death of Knox McCusker (April 27, 1955)
2008.27.4 · File · 1998-2003
Part of Knox McCusker Collection

File consists of the following materials:

  • Letter to Vernon C. Brink from the National Archives of Canada re: Knox McCusker holdings (March 1, 1999)
  • Photocopy of article: "Living Landscapes: Exploring the wilds of northeaster BC" by Ross Peck and Brian Apland
  • Some materials for an article on Knox McCusker, D.L.S.
  • Material about the life of Knox Freeman McCusker
  • Letter to Mrs. Rutherford (Oct. 5, 1999) re: access to interview of Knox McCusker by Frank Willis
  • Accession information print-out re: interview of Knox McCusker by Frank Willis in 1954
  • National Archives of Canada accession information print-out re: Dominion Land Surveyor Diaries, 1881-1930
  • Mary Henry / Knox McCusker "Team" (April 19, 1998)
  • Letter to Mrs. Rutherford from George Ungar re: background information on Knox McCusker
2008.27.5 · File · 1928-1955
Part of Knox McCusker Collection

File consists of the following articles and speeches written by Knox McCusker:

  • "Reminiscences of Knox McCusker" (63 typewritten pages)
  • "Back and Beyond the Peace" by K.McCusker (taken from the Toronto Star Weekly Saturday May 5, 1928) – retyped
  • "The Alaska Highway" by Knox F. McCusker, D.L.S. (The Canadian Surveyor, July 1943)-photocopy
  • Mr. McCusker's speech (5 pages)
  • “Tropical Valleys of B.C.” (4 pages)
  • "The president has called me an old old surveyor…" speech written by K. McCusker
  • "In the early days of my career in the Surveying profession…" written by K. McCusker
2008.27.3 · File · 1935-1997
Part of Knox McCusker Collection

File consists of the following items:

  • "Mac" by D.L. Surveyor
  • "Knox (Mac) McCusker: Dominion Land Surveyor" by E.L. Rutherford, V.C. Brink, R.S. Silver and M.Z. (Smokey) Neighbour
  • Excerpts from Men and Meridians by Don W. Thomson
  • Article re: Knox McCusker written on the occasion of his death (April 14, 1955)
  • "McKusker (sic) to open up Blueberry Mountain Area" (Alaska Highway News, June 8, 1950)
  • "McCusker was surveyor, big game guide….also rancher and trail blazer"
  • "Knox Freeman McCusker" written on the occasion of his death (The Canadian Surveyor, July 1955)
  • "Veteran Surveyor - Alaska Highway Stories"
  • Memories of Knox McCusker by his oldest niece Betty (McCusker) Rutherford
  • "Veteran Surveyor prefers horses for long bush treks" by Eric Young (Edmonton Journal)
  • Eulogy for Knox McCusker read by Stanley D. Seif at Burch Presbyterian Church in Fort St. John, B.C.
  • Eulogy for Gwendolyn Dorothy McCusker (July 1997)
  • "Tropical Valley No Myth: amazing story of woman who lived there" by Thomas A. Wayling (Vancouver Sun)
  • Photocopy of section of map: "Topographical sketch map showing route traversed by the Bedaux Sub-Arctic Expedition 1934 through the Rocky Mountains" (by Frank Swannell, March 27, 1935)
  • Memories of Knox McCusker by Bill McCusker, his oldest nephew
  • "There is always a reason; destiny made it a date. The corridor of the Alcan didn’t just happen" (Fort St. John publication)
  • Article on Knox McCusker (ALS News, Winter 1983)
"Notable Surveys"
2008.27.1.12 · Item · [1999?]
Part of Knox McCusker Collection

Item consists of a summary document entitled "Notable Surveys" by Mrs. W.K. Rutherford, V.C. Brink, R.S. Silver, and M.Z. ("Smokey") Neighbour. The document summarizes Knox McCusker's notable surveys. This article may have been put together by the authors for, or in conjunction with, a submission to a historical serial publication.

2023.2.2.9 · Subseries · 2000-2002
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

With support from the Muskwa-Kechika Trust Fund as a Seed Grant, Dr. Paul Sanborn carried out a pilot study of soils in relation to prescribed burning in the Northern Rocky Mountains, in collaboration with Perry Grilz, then a Range Officer in the Ministry of Forests. Sanborn and Grilz conducted 3 days of field work in July 2001. Sanborn wanted to test the utility of plant-derived opal (phytoliths) as a soil indicator of vegetation history, in the hope of distinguishing natural grasslands from those created by anthropogenic burning.

2023.2.2.8 · Subseries · 2003-2014
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

The Kluane Lake area of SW Yukon was a continuing focus of Dr. Paul Sanborn's research for more than a decade, and generated several productive collaborations. Key themes included biological soil crusts in boreal grasslands, and interactions between aeolian sediment deposition, slope processes, and fire in boreal grassland and forest soils.

Research results appeared in these publications:
Marsh, J., Nouvet, S., Sanborn, P., and Coxson, D. 2006. Composition and function of biological soil crust communities along topographic gradients in grasslands of central interior British Columbia (Chilcotin) and southwestern Yukon (Kluane). Canadian Journal of Botany 84: 717-736.

Pautler, B.G., Reichart, G.-J., Sanborn, P.T., Simpson, M.J., and Weijers, J.W.H. 2014. Comparison of soil derived tetraether membrane lipid distributions and plant-wax δD compositions for reconstruction of Canadian Arctic temperatures. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 404: 78-88.

Sanborn, P. and A.J.T. Jull. 2010. Loess, bioturbation, fire, and pedogenesis in a boreal forest – grassland mosaic, Yukon Territory, Canada. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World 1 – 6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia.

The 2003 field work with Darwyn Coxson was a pilot study to assess the types and distribution of biological soil crusts in boreal grasslands in the Kluane Lake area. Eight sites were visited at which the team sampled the crust and the uppermost A horizon immediately underneath it. Note that site numbers Y03-03, -04, -05, -06, -07, -09, -10 and -12 were indicated as sites 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 12 in Table 1 of Marsh et al. (2006). Additional crust sampling was conducted at two additional sites (“Peninsula”, “Silver City”) in 2004; details of sampling methods and site locations are in Marsh et al. (2006).

Results from 2009 field work were presented in Sanborn and Jull (2010), along with soil charcoal radiocarbon dates from 2003-2008 sampling which were used to reconstruct fire history in the Kluane Lake area. The 2003 (a single site at Silver City), 2004, and 2008 field work consisted of a reconnaissance of grassland and forest sites across a range of aspects and slope positions in order to recover buried soil charcoal.

2023.2.2.6 · Subseries · 1983-2010
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

During the 1980s, Agriculture Canada pedologists Scott Smith (retired from Summerland Research Station, formerly based in Whitehorse) and Charles Tarnocai (retired from Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa) had a large field program which addressed the trends in soil development in the central Yukon. Across this region, particularly between Whitehorse and Dawson City, the land surfaces and surficial deposits vary greatly in age due to the differing extents of glaciations over the past ~2 million years.

This work built on a pioneering study from the previous decade:
Foscolos, A.E., N.W. Rutter, and O.L. Hughes. 1977. The use of pedological studies in interpreting the Quaternary history of central Yukon Territory. Bulletin 271. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa. 48 p.

Tarnocai and Smith presented their results in two publications:
C. A. S. Smith, C. Tarnocai, and O. L. Hughes. 1986. Pedological investigations of Pleistocene glacial drift surfaces in the central Yukon. Géographie physique et Quaternaire, 40 (1): 29–37.
Tarnocai, C. and C. A. S. Smith. 1989. Micromorphology and development of some central Yukon paleosols, Canada. Geoderma 45 (2): 145-162.

Tarnocai and Smith shared the unpublished data and soil samples from this work with Dr. Paul Sanborn, and this resulted in a student project published as:
Daviel, E., P. Sanborn, C. Tarnocai, and C.A.A. Smith. 2011.Clay mineralogy and chemical properties of argillic horizons in central Yukon paleosols. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 91: 83-93.

2023.2.2.5 · Subseries · 1991-2023, predominant 2004
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

The Lost Chicken Mine, a placer gold mine in eastern Alaska, approximately 120 km west of Dawson City, Yukon, is an important fossil locality for the late Pliocene (approximately 2.5 – 3.0 million years ago). A comprehensive account of the stratigraphy and paleontology of this site was given by:
Matthews, J.V., Jr., J.A. Westgate, L. Ovenden, L.D. Carter, and T. Fouch. 2003. Stratigraphy, fossils, and age of sediments at the upper pit of the Lost Chicken gold mine: new information on the late Pliocene environment of east central Alaska. Quaternary Research 60: 9-18.

Dr. Paul Sanborn visited the site on July 20, 2004, as part of a group led by Duane Froese (Professor, University of Alberta). The group concentrated on a single exposure (~ 2 m thick) straddling the Lost Chicken tephra, a volcanic ash bed (2.9 ± 0.4 myr) which is a major stratigraphic marker at the site. Sanborn described, photographed, and sampled this exposure, and obtained a basic set of characterization data. Intact samples were collected but thin sections were never produced.

2023.2.2.4 · Subseries · 2004-2005
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

The eastern flank of the Mackenzie Mountains has a complex history of multiple glaciations by both the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets, recorded in thick sequences of glacial sediments that were documented at 3 locations (Katherine Creek, Little Bear River, Inlin Brook) by:
Duk-Rodkin, A., R.W. Barendregt, C. Tarnocai, and F.M. Phillips. 1996. Late Tertiary to late Quaternary record in the Mackenzie Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada: stratigraphy, paleosols, paleomagnetism, and chlorine-36. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 33 (6): 875-895.

Of the 3 sites, the exposure on Inlin Brook, a tributary of the Keele River, was the least well-documented, so in summer 2004 Dr. Paul Sanborn joined a field party of the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) based at Tulita, NWT, and was given helicopter support to visit Inlin Brook (August 5-8). A brief visit was also made to the Little Bear River site.

On August 9-10, Sanborn joined Alejandra Duk-Rodkin (GSC) and Rene Barendregt (U Lethbridge) in helicopter-assisted field work at sites in the Franklin Mountains and elsewhere east of the Mackenzie River.

2023.2.2.3 · Subseries · 2004-2006
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

As part of a multidisciplinary team led by Grant Zazula (then a Ph.D. student at Simon Fraser University; later a palaeontologist with the Government of Yukon) and Duane Froese (Professor, University of Alberta), Dr. Paul Sanborn examined a set of buried paleosols (fossil soils) preserved in frozen sediments exposed by placer mining in the spring of 2004.

The findings were published in:
Zazula, G.D., D.G. Froese, S.A. Elias, S. Kuzmina, C. La Farge, A.V. Reyes, P.T. Sanborn, C.E. Schweger, C.A.S. Smith, and R.W. Mathewes. 2006. Vegetation buried under Dawson tephra (25,300 14C yr BP) and locally diverse late Pleistocene paleoenvironments of Goldbottom Creek, Yukon, Canada. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 242: 253–286.

2023.2.2.2 · Subseries · 1995-2005
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

In the mid-1990s, Dr. Paul Sanborn worked with Dr. Lito Arocena of UNBC to assemble and interpret basic physical, chemical, and mineralogical data for typical soils at important long-term forestry research sites in central and northeastern BC. The key results were published as:

J.M. Arocena and P. Sanborn. 1999. Mineralogy and genesis of selected soils and their implications for forest management in central and northeastern British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 79: 571-592.

Nine pedons were involved, with 7 located at the sites of 4 Ministry of Forests Experimental Projects (E.P.), and 2 at the Aleza Lake Research Forest.

Forest soil sulphur research
2023.2.2.1 · Subseries · 1988-2011
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

Forest soil sulphur research was a continuing interest for Dr. Paul Sanborn for more than 30 years, beginning at UBC in the mid-1980s when he took a graduate course in Forest Soils from Dr. Tim Ballard. Among the things that he learned was that soils in much of BC were deficient in sulphur (S). Simultaneously, he became aware of the large amount of research on prescribed fire in BC forests, with broadcast burning being the main method of site preparation across much of the province at that time.

Sanborn undertook various projects in this area of research:

  1. UBC Postdoctoral Project on effects of prescribed fire on sulphur in forest soils (1988-90)
  2. Cluculz retrospective study (E.P. 886.10) with the BC Ministry of Forests and UNBC
  3. Sulphur stable isotope tracer study (E.P. 886.15) with the BC Ministry of Forests and UNBC
2023. · Item · [between 2002 and 2005]
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

This document file "Cluculz Creek Fertilization Research Site.pdf" contains a field description and basic characterization data for a representative pedon at the E.P. 886.10 site.

2023.2.2.10 · Subseries · 1993-2001
Part of Dr. Paul Sanborn fonds

While at the Ministry of Forests, Dr. Paul Sanborn carried out two retrospective studies which examined soil chemical properties at long-term silvicultural research sites where different vegetation types had been created, either as planned or unplanned experiments. These studies were Experimental Project (EP) 660 and a research project at the Archie Creek site.