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Unidentified Woman at Alaska Signage

Woman stands in front of sign that reads "ALASKA / STEWART 237 km / HYDER AK. 240 km / BEAR GLAC. 201 km". Second sign in background indicates restaurant, convenience store, and service centre. Car, road, and highway can be seen in midground; mountains in background. (This woman is also featured in item 2008.

Moran & Unknown Woman at Traditional Fishing Territory

Photograph depicts Moran seated to right of woman on bench in foreground. Waterfall area at Moricetown Canyon can be seen below, behind booth labeled "MONITER BOOTH". Highway and houses visible on opposite shore in background.

Cross Country Ski Trails in Summer

Photograph depicts landscape scene. Tree, bridge, and sign featuring cross country skier in foreground. Fence, hills, and forest in background.

River and Mountains

Photograph depicts wide river with forest shores on either side. Power lines in foreground, mountain in background.

Bridget Moran wearing Button Blanket

Photograph depicts Moran seated in chair at unknown location. Red and black button blanket features traditional thunderbird and killer whale designs. Television against wall in background.

Bridget Moran wearing Button Blanket

Photograph depicts Moran seated in chair at unknown location. Red and black button blanket features traditional thunderbird and killer whale designs. Television, armchair, and window visible in background.

Moran Signing Copy of 'Judgement at Stoney Creek'

Photograph depicts Bridget Moran seated at table covered with copies of 'Judgement at Stoney Creek'. Three copies of 'Stoney Creek Woman' are also displayed on table. Bookshelves in background. Photo believed to have been taken at same location as items 2008., 2008., and 2008.

"The Plot Thickens" / "Patrick – Sand Blast" audio recording

Item is a recorded audio cassette: Side A: The Plot Thickens, Oct. 31/87; Side B: Patrick: Sandblast, Aug/86

Audiocassette Summary
SIDE 1 - Title: “The Plot Thickens” - Oct. 31, 1987 00:04 Tape recording of an FM radio broadcast entitled “The Plot Thickens” featuring an announcer reading the winning entry for short fiction in the adult category. The title of the story is “The Case of the Box of Matches” by Bridget Moran who was then announced as the 1st prize winner in “The Plot Thickens”: her prize was a copy of The Illustrated History of Canada. Transcript available in 2008.3.1.81, along with a copy of a cover letter she sent in to the radio station for this contest. (Oct. 31, 1987) 03:03 Bridget Moran reading a story she wrote about quitting smoking, entitled “My Old Flame” Transcript available. Some significant differences noted between available transcript and tape recording. (ca. 1987) This story was published in the Saturday Review of The Vancouver Sun, February 22, 1992 as “The grief of giving up my long-time comfort”. Copy of the article available in 2008.3.1.81. 11:39 Tape recorded music (various) 45:40 End of Side 1

SIDE 2 - Title: Patrick – Sand Blast, Aug/86 45:44 Pre-lunch CI Radio interview: Leanne (?) with Patrick Moran re: 15th Annual Sandblast. He raced in Sandblast for 6 years and involved with the organization for 3 years. He got into it from his love of skiing. Pre-race organizers go through the course and clean away the rocks and obstacles as best they can. [The rough course] doesn’t scare him. To consider entering this event: need to be confident skier; to wear heavy pants for protection on legs and arms, helmet and pair of gloves; keep your head about you – it’s lots of fun. Discussion that some of the falls are very spectacular to watch. Time on Sunday: skier registration at 10am at Kokanee Cutbanks right on the flat bed; racing starting at noon. Concession and toilet facilities and parking available. Asking spectators to park on the city side of the bank – NRT Ready Mix offered their parking lot for the occasion to help lessen traffic congestion. Big sponsors this year include: Bob Husband and the people at Labatts and Kokanee – without them Sandblast wouldn’t be happening due to liabilities going up. Also a thank you to George and the people at Northern Ski – backbone of Sandblast. Also Pacific Western Airlines – winner will win trip anywhere in Canada. Prizes also include: walkmans, skiing accessories, sports gear, t-shirts, cameras, etc… Divisions of competition include: men’s and women’s slalom; telemark event; and prizes for safety and a helmet; also a hidden time prize. CI radio also donating “Best Time” annual trophy. Saturday night a Pre Blast “Blast”: tix on sale at Northern Ski $12 incl. midnight buffet with door prizes. Doors open 8pm until 2pm at the Kin Sports Centre. Music by Prince George band: Sound Concord, and Lightening Sound. Tix only available in advance. Sandblast t-shirt and dance tix radio giveaway through trivia question: “Who won the men’s 1st prize last year and also the year before” Hint: initials “S.B.”. Pat also mentioned support by RCMP and City of Prince George. No callers so interviewer Leanne answers: Stu Boyce (?) and she promised to give tix away later on the radio. Thanks to Pat Moran. 53:18 Tape recorded music (various) 01:05:22 Bridget Moran reading a story she wrote about quitting smoking, entitled “My Old Flame” Transcript available. Some significant differences noted between available transcript and tape recording. (ca. 1987) Different reading than that on Side 1. This story was published in the Saturday Review of The Vancouver Sun, February 22, 1992 as “The grief of giving up my long-time comfort”. Copy of the article available in 2008.3.1.81. 01:16:25 Tape recorded music (various)
*01:28:50 End of Side 2

Portrait of Bridget Moran

Photograph depicts close view of Moran seated in front of window at unknown location. Handwritten annotation on recto of photograph: "July / 1997". Accompanying note reads "[...] also enclosed is a letter sent to you via Marianne & your book that got left behind. Hope you are well & we'd love to see you at our meeting sometime. Regards! Sue [McNeill?]."

Justa Monk audio recording

Item is a recorded audio interview with Justa Monk.

Audiocassette Summary
00:04 Moran asks Justa when and where he was born. In Fort St. James, Nov. 20, 1942 in his father’s home. Moran asks about Justa’s mother’s family and her relationship to Eddie John. His mother had a big family, 2-3 sisters, and quite a few brothers. She was from Portage and his dad was from Babine Lake. Both ended up in Tachie after meeting in Fort St. James and marrying in 1924. Their marriage was arranged: a long time ago that is how marriages were made. His parents were born in 1900 and married in 1924. His mother was married before and had one child but this first husband died. The child’s last name was Maurice. After getting married, his parents moved to Portage to work on his father’s farm acreage outside the reserve. When Justa went to Lejac in ’54, he was accused of being non-status by Dept. of Indian Affairs and tried to kick him and his brother out of Lejac because this farm was off reserve. In 1954 the Monks moved back to Tachie after all his older brothers and sisters got married in Tachie.

4:35 His parents lived away from Tachie for about 30 years. They moved back to Tachie after working in Fort St. James, Douglas Lodge and Nakalak Lodge on Stewart Lake. Bridget wondered who owned the lodge back then? Justa says it was owned by Harry McConnachie. Justa’s father worked at this lodge as a guide.

5:03 Justa was the baby of a family of 11. Justa was born in 1942, when his mother was 42. His mother was born Feb. 18, 1900, his Dad May 15, 1900: so they were both about same age. They were married 67 years. His Mom died March 17, 1992. She was still sewing slippers at age 92. Bridget Moran talks about taping Granny Seymour as part of her social work when she was 111-112 years old, and how Granny had sewn Bridget a tablecloth.

6:30 Justa stayed at Lejac for 4 years. He couldn’t read, or write or speak English when he first started school. When he first arrived he had to surrender his home clothes and asked his brother, in his own language, why they were taking his clothes. A priest, Father Clanahan hit him on the ear and told him not to use that language here. He never forgot that day. He stayed from ’52 to ’57 and left in September 1957. They didn’t want to let him go because he was one of the best hockey players at Lejac. He took off into bush and went to his auntie’s place. They chased him for 2 weeks steady. He left because he was sick and tired of 2 things: working all the time on the farm and not learning anything in school; and second, praying 10-20 times a day. The schoolchildren changed clothes on Sundays, into Sunday clothes: a sweater and a pair of pants to go to church. He has nothing against religion, he is a practicing Catholic, but he was made to pray too often at Lejac. One thing he found with Lejac, was that they taught him what was right and wrong – they disciplined the children. Lejac did discipline people, but they didn’t totally punish them (with physical force). He worked at Lejac after he quit school with Adrian Johnnie. They would work there for 3 weeks then return home for 5 weeks. This job didn’t provide high wages but it was work and he had money.

10:18 When Justa left Lejac, he worked at a mill. He was 14 and underage, so his brothers signed for him so he could work. When he left Lejac in 1957, his father told him to go back but he didn’t want to. Justa had RCMP officers after him but with his brothers’ help he kept hiding. When his dad knew Justa wasn’t going to return to school he told him that if he was man enough to quit school, he was man enough to be on your own and start work. So his parents moved back up to North Arm to the lodge, and left Justa in the Fort. He was underage, and couldn’t get a job, until his brothers Teddy and John signed a consent form for him to work in a mill. He worked in the mill for 7 years from ’57 to ‘63. From ‘63 on, he worked with his dad at Nakalak Lodge for another 7 years. He worked a lot around white society and then into the Indian nations.

11:45 Justa talks about his trouble with the law. In 1967 his brother John came over and asked him to come and drink with him. His dad told him twice not to go but Justa didn’t listen. They were drinking rum together and the last thing he remembered was playing record player on the table. Later that night, the cops came and picked him up. He asked them why they were picking him up. The cops asked him if he knew what had happened. He said he didn’t know what they were talking about. They then told him he had stabbed his brother. He didn’t believe them. They had to get one of his sisters to come and explain it to him. That was in ’67, he was about 20 years old. He took it rough. He did time for 6 months or so in Prince George. He wanted to commit suicide but had a 24-hr guard placed on him. The prison also had his lawyer and priest to come and talk to him. When he was released, he went home and his family accepted him back but he still felt awkward and had every intention of killing himself.

14:07 He went back to jail. He was told to stay away from the hotel. His friend went into this hotel, but Justa stayed outside about 50-60 feet away. A cop came by and told him he wasn’t supposed to be near that place. He asked him what was ‘near’ and the cop said about 50ft. Justa told the cop that he wasn’t going in, but the cop told him he was violating his parole anyway. He didn’t argue with the cop. He went back with his lawyer in front of the judge. Because he didn’t go into the hotel, he didn’t get charged with violating his parole, but was told he had to leave Fort St. James so he moved up to Dawson Creek and went back to school.

14:47 He stayed 1½ years in Dawson Creek to do his upgrading. He didn’t know anyone there. At that time he got $34/month for incidentals like cigarettes: room and board must have been paid for separately. Nowadays kids get something like $2,000 for going to school. It ($34) wasn’t much in ‘67-‘69. In ‘69 he got a letter from his brother Teddy saying their parents wanted him home. Justa had a common-law wife at that time. She had moved up to Dawson Creek with her kids. She had kids from another relationship. Life wasn’t easy then. He couldn’t get any part-time work. He had no choice but to move home after the letter from his brother. His parents were getting old. It wasn’t an easy life he lived.

16:10 From ‘67 on it was awkward. He didn’t know how he coped. Sometimes he just wanted to be alone. After he moved back home, he got a cabin on Stewart Lake - one his dad used to own. His dad transferred it over to him. He’d stay up there and just think about things. He had a lot of good jobs offered when he was young. When he was guiding, he had a guy from California offer him a guiding job in California. This guy said he would send Justa home twice a year to see his family. He was single then but he rejected this offer. In ‘70 when worked at BC Rail, they wanted him to move to Williams Lake and Kamloops to be a crane operator. He rejected them too because he wanted to be with his parents.

17:26 On Jan. 2, 1971 the band hired him as maintenance man. In ‘72 when the chief and staff there quit, they asked him to be band manager. He said he didn’t have the knowledge. They came back to his house twice, on the third time Justa agreed to give it a try but gave them no guarantees that he would stay. He said he didn’t know how he’d be an office boy when he was more an outdoors person, but he gave it a try and since then he has never looked back. From there Justa went from band manager for 14-15 years, to chief and band manager at times. When his brother (?) resigned as chief, he stepped in as chief and band manager. That was the toughest year he ever had. He was on nerve pills and sleeping pills. Dr. Mooney said if he didn’t slow down he was going to die. On June 14, 1986 when he broke out in rash again from bad nerves, he asked the council to let him off for 6 months or so for a rest - they wouldn’t let him, so he quit. He stayed home July and August and had no intention of working anywhere. He was going to go to his cabin and draw UIC. But on August 16, Eddie called him and told him he had to be in Prince George by August 18 as the Carrier Sekani Membership Assembly passed a motion and wanted to hire him as their General Manager. His wife said it was up to him, but she also suggested that he should take a year off. But he decided it was his own people picking him and he didn’t want to refuse them. So they moved down to P.G. and he was General Manager from August 1986 to July 1988 when the Tachie band wanted him back up there. When he moved back up to Tachie he was given the position of Coordinator for Teasely Forest Products, the sawmill they were building on the reserve. They also looked at him as Vice-chief, which he worked at part time on a volunteer basis from 1988-89. In 1989 he became Vice-chief and in July 1990 he was elected Tribal Chief which again meant he had to move down to P.G. for 2.5 to 3 years without his family. He was living out of motels for about a year.

21:44 He married his wife in 1972. She had 6 or 7 children from the previous marriage. She was a widow. They were going together before that. In ‘67 she had his child. Her name before marriage was Theresa Austin. They only had 1 child together but they adopted 1 girl and 1 boy. The girl was Theresa’s grandchild after Theresa’s daughter was killed. They legally adopted her when she was a few weeks old. Then Justa’s niece had a boy in Kamloops and wanted to give the boy away. He wanted a boy badly so he took the child.

23:12 Justa speaks of one of his daughters who was, at the time of the interview, being assessed for placement into College Heights Secondary in Prince George. She was supposed to go into grade 10 but as there was a lot of difference between reserve school in Tachie and public school in Prince George, she had to go for testing.

23:53 As Chief, Justa had a three part mandate: to educate the public about land claims, to work on land claims, and to stop Kemano II. Public education on land claims was a priority and he spoke to many organizations. However, his main focus at that time was Kemano II as it was going to destroy their way of life. The previous chief had done nothing about it for two years. Justa hired lawyers and started going to court. His lawyers lost the first round at court, won the second, and lost the third and that’s where it stood at the time of the interview. Other administrative priorities included: education, drop outs within the CSTC area, housing, social problems (drugs and alcohol). There was not just one issue, but many.

26:23 He never thought he would be in politics. He thought originally that he wanted to be either an RCMP officer, or to join the army. He never thought he’d be a chief. He went to a recruiting office, one of his friends was accepted. His knee was weak from previous sports injuries so he was rejected as was another one of his friends.

27:54 Justa has been working since he was 14. He was 49 at the time of the interview – that’s 35 years of his life spent steadily at work - except for 1 year when he went to school in Dawson Creek. Justa said the last 22 years were where the excitement was. From ‘71 to the present he’d seen lots of changes. In some cases better, in others worse. He gives for example the guidelines of the Department [of Indian Affairs?]. When reading the guidelines regarding housing and education the system has gotten worse – it has gotten stricter. Construction is also too costly now – you can’t build economical housing anymore. Communication with the department, however, has improved. Housing and social problems on reserve are now worse – more drugs, alcohol and free money. Justa stresses that social assistance is going to damage his people if they don’t do anything about it. His way of thinking proposes an alternative funding arrangement so the band can change the way social assistance is distributed so that his people can’t get money for free. The council would be able to make their people do something for the community in exchange for this money. Fort Nak'azdli band is doing that. The administrator there has brought welfare recipients down from 90% to 10%.

32:02 Bridget mentions it is her birthday today (69). She then tells Justa that they will have to talk about what he thinks (re: how to write the book). Justa says he wants to recollect everything. Bridget also mentions the wealth of information in the many journals he has kept over the years.

33:02 His time at Lejac was exciting for him. He was a favourite pupil at Lejac, because of his sports agility.

33:24 Bridget asked him if he had had trouble with alcohol. He says yes, that was the reason he got into trouble. He would work 5 days a week, but on weekends he would party with his brothers and a few friends. His parents worried he wouldn’t make it due to his partying. He started drinking at Lejac with stolen mass wine. Eventually he came to a point in his life when he was Band Manger where he wasn’t taking his leadership seriously. He would bring a thermos filled with beer and 3 packs of cigarettes to the office just to get through the day. After one of the elders talked to him about his self destructive ways, he began to think about his life. That was in 1984-85. So he started slowing down. As well, once his adopted little boy had grown up enough to see him drinking, he had told him to quit, so then he really started slowing down. And lastly, after he became Tribal Chief he knew he had to change his ways so he could be a positive role model for the young people. Quitting drinking was tough though as there were times he just wanted to drink, like when young people in his band died.

36:41 Bridget said she’ll write an outline of his life for her publishers to see what they think and then they can decide from that. She had his phone number and promised not to give it out to anyone else as it is unlisted. He mentioned he was going to go out hunting but his wife was always home. Bridget said she probably won’t tackle this project until the New Year as she had a new book coming out: A Little Rebellion. They could then work out an arrangement: 50% – 50% on royalties and he would have final say on what would go into the book. She told him he has to be prepared to really tell everything.

38:12 Tape ends mid sentence.


45:50 Interview with Justa; Mary John and Theresa Monk are there too

46:11 Bridget asks about Joe Hansen, Justa Hansen’s brother. Joe was at Camp 24 – a mill camp where people from Ft. St. James would go to work in the summer and live in the shacks. Justa spent a weekend at this camp taking care of Joe Hansen when he was very old and dying of TB. His mouth used to dry out so badly, Justa would use bear grease on the outside and inside of his mouth, and that’s when Joe told him that in the future when he gets married he was going to have kids and be a leader. He told Justa he helps people; and never to laugh at the poor, or crippled or blind, and that if anyone else was laughing to just walk away and not to laugh with them because they will suffer later on. This is what the elders advised him. Many issues the elders talked to him about are now happening and are guiding him in his leadership. Jim (?) Joseph told him the same thing on his death bed. He told him in the future he was going to be a leader for a long time after he dies. Justa was named after Justa Hansen who was his godfather, and Justa Hansen used to tell Justa how to help people and what to do out in the bush. His elders spent a lot of time with him and shared their knowledge and wisdom with him. Some of the predictions – people dying out of alcohol is now what he’s seeing. Back in 1970, late 60’s, he was told in the future he would see young people from here to Ft. St. James dying out from alcohol. He is seeing this now. One of the biggest opportunities he had in life was to hang around with his elders: beginning in 1971 when he started working for the band.

51:00 His used to hang out with his elders (he lists many) and cut wood for them and give it to them free. The elders were just like parents to him and he was welcome everywhere with his elders.

52:13 Bridget asks if Justa will become chief here. Justa says he doesn’t know and that the young people around here have different ideas and don’t know what true leadership is. He presumes he will become chief but he can’t predict anything. Theresa: young people don’t look at what is good and what is bad. Bridget: do you think there is any real challenge to your leadership? Justa: there are some young people, but they don’t have leadership experience. He is positive he is going to get in. He’s received phone calls from chiefs asking him to be chief to his people part-time and then to also be tribal council chief part-time. He says staff is very important in any leadership, good staff listen to grassroots people. Same with leadership, they must listen to the grassroots people. With a good set of staff you don’t worry about anything.

54:48 He wants to complete the Kemano II deal. He made a commitment. On that basis he’s confused as to where he wants to be, he has a week to finalize his position. He knows if he runs as tribal chief he will get in. Archie Patrick supports his leadership and thinks he was the only one to keep people together. He also thought Justa really should have been given time off when he had asked for it. Justa talks about the deaths in his family that had caused him to quit the tribal council when he did in May (‘92?) Justa believes with the right set of staff he could do it.

56:37 Bridget: She has heard from so many native people and elders that until there is healing for the residential school experience, the other social problems won’t be solved. Justa doesn’t believe this to be true. The social problems exist regardless. As of 1992 the younger generation has no discipline, no clear direction, it is hard to talk to them without them swearing back at you. He cannot blame Lejac – there was some good and some bad. You look around today at the guys in leadership and they were all from Lejac. The social problems, you measure it from the time we left Lejac the social problems weren’t there. There was no real alcohol problems- just a few of us, no suicide, not as many deaths as today. People have put it in their minds that Lejac is where the social problems started from. He wouldn’t use Lejac as an excuse. It isn’t just Lejac though, some residential schools may have been worse. He was there for 4 years and only got punished once for something he didn’t do.

1:00:06 The beginnings of solutions for social problems: substance abuse, violence, suicide start with elders, the parents and the youth themselves. If he becomes chief, there is going to be an elders council and a youth council and they are going to work together with the chief and councillors. That is the start. Together they will search for solutions. Elders to share what they went through. He has many elders that can do this - if he can get them out of bingo! He has the 5-6 youths too. He would take 2 youths who are into substance abuse, 2 from the school and 1 from an urban area and tell them to make a 1 year commitment to talk about social problems and listen to the elders and bring them to meetings and make them sit there and listen. They would then go back and share what they learned with their friends and other students.

1:04:08 Bridget: Speaks to and about Mary John’s work with her people in Stoney Creek to deal with alcoholism in her community. Mary dealt with it from family to family but got burnt out. Justa: that’s why you have to work with the councillors, you can’t just depend on the elders as it will burn them out. Mary: you have to work with the councillors. Mary and Justa talk about trouble in Stoney Creek with the Council, and how you have to listen to your elders. Eddie has also never used the elders. Change must come from elders - sharing of the past and the intention of the future. Chief and councillors must be right there too as they are the chosen leaders. Eddie John is current chief. Mary: Eddie just has title of chief but is never here. (not heard: ? is acting as chief) Justa: he’s not feeling well he just had cancer and is very tired still from the treatment.

1:07:56 The local school on reserve teaches Carrier culture – they teach language and potlatch. Justa was not sure if they were still doing it. When he was band manager they started it and they would ask him to come watch the little kids hold a little potlatch. He really enjoyed that. They’ve done a lot in regards to whole culture. He used to get money for elders to teach children how to do skins.

1:08:57 Justa receives a phone call and speaks Carrier. Bridget speaks to Theresa and Mary in background.

1:09:54 From 1967-69 Justa went back to school in Dawson Creek to upgrade but hasn’t been back since. He is more a self taught politician. He has learnt from reading. That’s why there is so much difference in leadership nowadays. You take a young person coming out of school or college and they think they come home to be chief and change the world overnight. He worked at the grassroots level first, he was maintenance man first, then band manager, then chief and then tribal chief. He started at the grassroots level and that is why his intention is to improve grassroots support. He doesn’t impose on his people, they have to tell him what they want. He may only advise on how things might work better in the future.

1:11:40 Because of his broad experiences, he is going to hold a workshop for new councillors on leadership and responsibility, how to listen and respond to things. He’s going to do this when he is chief or tribal chief again.

1:012:21 There are 15,000 people in Carrier Sekani, 22 occupied communities, and 14 bands.

1:13:08 He likes to work, he’s used to it. Ever since he was 14. He remembers when he ran away from the bus in September that was to take him back to school from Fort St. James. His dad told him if he was man enough to quit school he was man enough to work. That’s when he made up his mind to work.

1:14:09 Before Lejac he lived in Portage. He really enjoyed this life. They didn’t have anything fancy, even sweets were rare. Since 5, he remembers hanging around his dad who had a farm and would help him from 4 o’clock in the morning. He loved driving the horses to plow the garden. His dad taught him a lot about surviving in the bush and what not to touch and what to touch. His dad told him not to chop trees, if you need it, if it’s dry use it. His elders told him don’t touch anything you don’t need.

1:15:47 He was the youngest in the family. The next sibling to him was his brother Teddy who was about 2 years older. He got shot. He went on an island from Tachie to pick up his cheque from a guy who had a guiding outfit. This was just after Justa returned home from Dawson Creek after receiving a letter from Teddy asking him to come home to be with his aging parents. Teddy went out and didn’t come back, he was in his 20s.

1:17:42 Justa didn’t get to Lejac until he was 10 years old as his Dad didn’t want to send him. There was a guy - Lee Cochran, DIA – he and an RCMP member talked to his dad and told him Justa had to go. Most of his siblings went to school at Lejac for 1-2 years. Jimmy the eldest didn’t go to school at all. Bridget: By 7 most children were sent to school or had the church and cops after them. Mary: Maybe because Justa was a bit more isolated in his community he was left alone awhile longer. Justa was up in Portage and you could only get up by boat and if the water was rough you couldn’t get up at all.

1:19:08 Justa had a very good childhood. His mom and dad were both very gentle people. He was never hungry. He didn’t have fancy clothes like he’s got nowadays but he never went naked. He also had very good experience at Lejac compared to other people. He was the leader of the boys. He would lead them to class, or to the dinning room. That’s when his leadership started. The school principal and priest chose him to do that job and he got paid $1/week. Mary: also had a good experience at Lejac, although she was homesick and hungry. Justa was homesick during the first year as he didn’t know the language. He had to depend on his brother Teddy and other friends. After that he was fine. It didn’t bother him to go back. But in his fifth year, when he was going into grade 7, he was 14 and his brothers convinced him he didn’t have to go back so he didn’t.

1:21:40 He wonders If he did complete his school if he’d be another Indian lawyer running around. Justa always wanted to be in RCMP or join the army. In 1962 he went to Vancouver to enlist but wasn’t accepted because of a bad knee.

1:22:09 When he was working in P.G. Justa missed Tachie very much. So he would often get up early and work late – because if he was busy he was occupied and not so homesick for his family. He never appreciated living in a city much. For last 5 years, there had been talk about moving the CSTC tribal office to Stoney Creek or Vanderhoof but every time this was brought up there were some reasons why couldn’t move office: airport in PG and resource people in PG. Justa doesn’t agree and believes Vanderhoof to be the centre point for their people. City life doesn’t suit him. Bridget comments on how the house he shares with Archie in PG is very different than his home in Tachie.

1:24:48 Bridget: They will have to keep in touch. She asks him if he still wants a book written about him? She tells him to talk to Mary as a book changes your life a bit.

1:25:05 Mary: She says it does, but she likes to have more people getting these stories.
[Break in conversation due to stopping of tape recorder? Conversation resumes mid-sentence. Perhaps they are speaking of the watchmen?]

1:25:16 Justa: His auntie’s husband would check every house once and awhile. Sylvester Basil was an orphan who used to stay with Justa’s parents, but he always wanted to be mischievous and make home brew. His sisters didn’t like home brew and he didn’t like it, and they didn’t want to see their parents drink either... So these guys would chop up their tents. They never did answer them but used to be really scared of them. The church chief used to work together. Mary: Lazare is a Church chief now. Church chief’s look after the spiritual part of the people. Theresa: like a church leader. Justa – they talk in church about what is wrong and right and how to trust in the Lord.

1:27:02 Justa doesn’t drink at all now. He had too much in younger days. He had a couple of beers on the Easter Monday after his mom died. Before that it was 3 years ago. Prior to that he had been slowing down 5-6 years earlier maybe more. When he was chief and band manager and used to drink in the early 80s it got to him so badly he would bring a thermos of beer to the office. That was the only way he could keep us his energy. He came to realize it was harming him.

1:28:50 He used to receive many complaints as band manager. He kept daily diaries, where he would write down these complaints but identify the complainant. Bridget wanted him to dig them out. By winter Justa should know if he’s chief, tribal chief or nothing. He wants to share his abilities with all his people, not just this community. If he gets back in, he’s going to start a youth conference using the elders. Bridget: In society’s that have recovered it was the use of the elders that had done it.
1:30:40 Wendy Grant (Musqueum Band – Vice chief of BC) told him sad story up at Nakalak Lodge last summer, when they were talking about the future of how they were going to take over the DIA and self government. The story was about how her band and her community totally lost their culture…

1:31:11 End of tape mid sentence.

Justa – Tape 2

Item is a recorded audio interview with Justa Monk.

Audiocassette Summary

00’10” Bridget Moran interviews Justa Monk. They discuss the ancestry of his last name and its original spelling, Monck. Moran wants to know more about Monk’s genealogy. She tells Justa his family history will be a chapter in the book.

08’ 45” Justa discusses how his ancestors move around on the land for hunting purposes. Moran wants to know more about gardens.

10’ 19” The interview returns to Justa’s family history, particularly the arranged marriage between his mother and father.

12’ 33” Moran asks about Justa’s immediate family. Justa talks about his brothers and sisters.

16’ 54” Justa talks about alcoholism with his brothers and sisters, and with other families.

20’ 10” Moran returns to asking about Justa’s brothers and sisters. Justa talks about one of his brothers being shot and killed; mentions the name of the man who killed his brother. Justa talks about his nephew getting shot by the RCMP.

27’ 54” Moran asks Justa about the relationship between him and his siblings. He talks about being the one who is reliable; has strong leadership skills, even though he is the youngest child.

30’ 50” Moran asks about Justa’s mother. She loved going to potlatches, did a lot of sewing. She was a very quiet and religious person. Justa’s father was the same, very outspoken. Justa tells Moran he is close to all of his brothers and sisters after she asks which he is closest. When Justa was 5 years old, he spent a lot of time with his father, where he learned to hunt by the age of 7.

34’ 20” Moran asks about Justa’s housing when he was growing up. He tells her his family had a large house, but there were no bedrooms, so they had different corners where they would sleep. They had a large garden outside of their home.

39’ 20” Justa talks about how isolated Portage was, so they had to grow their own food.

40’ 41” Moran asks about churches. Justa tells her there was a church and a priest came into Portage once in a while.

41’ 10” Moran asks about what Justa remembers about Christmas. He remembers getting dressed up and going to church to sing hymns.

43’ 02” Moran asks Justa which of his brothers and sisters went to school. Justa says his sisters were not punished or abused. His brothers enjoyed school. His brothers and sisters were not allowed to speak their language, and this was their only disappointment. Justa talks about his experiences at school; he quit school and tried to get a job.

50’ 24” Moran asks about when Justa moved from Portage to Tachie.

52’ 34” Moran asks about Justa trying to get a job at such a young age. He got a job with his brothers at a sawmill in Fort St. James.

55’ 33” Justa says he was born in 1943. Moran asks about when he met Theresa, his wife. They began their common-law relationship in 1966.

57’ 13” Moran asks about how long Justa was in jail. He served 9 months and was released on parole.

1:02’ 53” Justa talks about being unemployed and broke. Theresa came to visit him at camp where she stayed for 6 or 7 months. He talks about getting married later on in their relationship. Moran asks about where Theresa is from. Theresa is from Tachie but he did not know her growing up. Moran asks about Theresa’s background.

1:08’27” Justa talks about his many girlfriends, partying, and being a womanizer. Theresa and him got ‘serious’ after she had their daughter.

1:11’ 24” Moran ends the interview. She tells Justa they will change the pace for the next interview by discussing land claims. Moran asks Justa about running for chief. He lost the first time he ran.

1:14’28” Moran asks Justa about Kemano. Back in 1948, Kemano I was created. The Indian Agent came to the reserves for signatures so the Kemano project could go ahead. Justa says the people did not have time to move their things when the flooding began. People were misled with regards to what the Kemano project was about. People on the reserves were moved to Grassy Plains – they were spread out, not the same community as they were. In 1982, First Nations people began to fight back against Kemano II. Justa was a district chief.

1:24’ 48” Justa discusses the need for an environmental assessment for the Kemano project. The case to the Supreme Court and are currently waiting for the decision. The provincial government claims there is no need for environmental assessment and are planning to go forward with the project. Justa discusses the commission and the Kemano case, in general.

1:30’ 07” End of tape.

Justa – Tape 4

Item is a recorded audio interview with Justa Monk.

Audiocassette Summary

00’ 10” Justa talks about getting together a memorandum of understanding regarding boundaries for fishing grounds. Justa has also been discussing land claims with the provincial government. He talks about setting up the future for the younger generation. He says a fair land claim settlement would be the granting of traditional grounds.

5’ 27” Moran asks about the Save The River campaign.

6’ 14” Moran inquires about the diaries Justa is supposed to bring her. Justa wants to talk about his childhood. He feels his youth was better than the youth of today because they are given everything.

11’ 06” Moran asks about Justa’s life in Portage and to describe a day he remembers from his time there before going to residential school. He talks about not being allowed out after dark and being respectful of other people’s property. He discusses being disciplined by talking about what was right and wrong.

15’ 15” Justa talks about his time in residential school and how he was not allowed to speak his native language. He was shocked by the corporal punishment. Moran and Justa discuss about putting this in the book or not. He talks about not having any privacy in the residential school.

21’ 55” They return to discussing the personal details of Justa’s life in Portage, such as eating porridge for breakfast. Moran and Justa discuss fishing and hunting, and the times of the year he would be away from home.

27’ 55” Moran asks Justa about a day at the residential school. He talks about how he refused to buy a Bible. He participated in sports in his second year. He talks about the food and having to take cod liver oil. He talks about being a hockey player. He talks about the time he broke his leg at the residential school.

37’ 51” Moran asks Justa about which of his sisters would be willing to talk to her. They begin to talk about Justa’s philandering and how he had a lot of fun during that time. He talks about cheating on Theresa, but they stayed together. They continue to talk about his sex life. He talks about his relationship with Theresa. He talks about his daughter, Sharon.

47’ 00” Moran wants to talk about the trauma of John, his brother who was murdered. He tells Moran that was the time he started to turn his life around. They talk about his time in jail.

48’ 18” Moran starts the interview with Theresa, Justa’s wife. Moran asks Theresa about her personal details. She talks about her family past. She got married to get away from her parents, who were her adoptive parents.

52’ 40” Moran asks Theresa about going to residential school and how her parents would not allow it because they wanted to teach other responsibilities. Theresa talks about how some of her responsibilities were hunting beavers.

59’ 30” Theresa starts talking about how she found out she was adopted. She discusses her real brothers and sisters and how several of them passed away from tuberculosis. She talks about how she is close to her adoptive mother. Theresa does not know why she was adopted out.

1:05” 57” Moran asks Theresa about residential school. Theresa says she could not speak English, so was punished for speaking her native language. She says there was no corporal punishment against her. She talks about getting tuberculosis and getting transferred to a hospital where she stayed for eighteen months. She learned how to speak English while at the hospital.

1: 14’ 57” Theresa talks about getting married at the age of 18 in 1948. Theresa gets tuberculosis again in 1956, so was placed in a sanatorium. She returns to talking about her former husband and how he treated her poorly. He was sent to jail for about two years for assaulting Theresa.

1: 26’ 50” Theresa talks about how difficult it was to obtain money for her and the children.

1: 27’ 54” Moran asks about how she met Justa. She says she always liked him and thought he looked cute. She began to go out with Justa in the 1960s. She moved to Dawson Creek to be with Justa when he was released from jail.

1:33’ 35” End of tape.

Tachie – Tape 1

Item is a audio interview recorded by Bridget Moran with Justa Monk's family members.

Audiocassette Summary

00’ 05” Moran is talking to Justa’s sister, Adelle. She says the old way of life is better than life today. They talk about the lack of gardens in Tachie today.

02’ 45” Adelle talks about the family history, particularly her father. She talks about their way of life when they were children. Adelle continues to talk about her past.

08’ 40” Adelle talks about the residential school and how she was upset she was when she was sent there. She talks about being punished for speaking their native language. She was at the residential school until the age of sixteen.

12’ 13” Moran asks Adelle about what she remembers about fishing. She talks about the process of fishing.

13’ 22” Adelle talks about her individual history. She talks about not getting married at all because she could not marry the man she wanted. She talks about getting tuberculosis and being in the hospital for a year. When she was released from the hospital, she moved in with a man who was abusive towards her. She talks about leaving him and moving to Prince George, eventually.

18’ 56” Adelle talks about how it was beneficial that her parents were strict. She continues to talk about her childhood, particularly Christmas.

24’ 36” Moran and Adelle talk about when Justa killed his brother. Adelle tells Moran that Justa looked after his brother’s children after he was released from prison.

26’ 08” Moran asks Adelle about whether she drank or not. Adelle says when she moved to Prince George she began to drink heavily.

27’ 35” Moran asks Theresa about the time her and Justa got married. Adelle tells Moran that Justa was the baby of the family and how his siblings ‘babied’ him, hence why his mother was so upset when he married Theresa.

31’ 00” Interview changes to Theresa’s mother. Theresa’s mother speaks in her native language most of the time and Theresa translates. They talk about her past, particularly where and when she was born. They talk about how many families lived in Tachie.

40’ 13” Moran asks about whether Theresa’s mother went to Fort St. James often before the road was built. When they went to Fort St. James, by horse, they would buy some groceries.

43’ 04” They continue to talk about Theresa’s mother’s past.

47’ 33” Moran interviews Jimmy, Justa’s brother. She begins by asking him with the road being built. He tells her life was better in the old days because it was cheaper.

50’ 10” Moran asks about the family history. Jimmy lists the siblings from oldest to youngest.

52’ 05” Jimmy tells Moran that he did not go to the residential school because his grandfather would not let him. Jimmy needed to work for the family because he was the oldest. He talks about everything being done by hand.

58’ 00” Moran asks Jimmy about the type of house that his parents lived in when he was born. He talks about his childhood and his way of life. He talks about helping building a house with his father that had no rooms.

1: 02” 53” Moran asks Jimmy when he got married. Jimmy talks about his wife’s family, particularly his father-in-law, who Justa was named after.

1: 04’ 58” Moran asks Jimmy his memories about living in Portage. He tells her he was a bad kid. He also talks about the trips he took to the surrounding areas. He tells her it was a hard life, but there were good things.

1:10’ 35” Moran asks Jimmy about any memories he has of Justa as a kid. Jimmy tells her that even as a kid, Justa was pretty smart. Jimmy would take him to collect hay. Justa was called the baby and was spoiled too much.

1: 13’ 09” Moran asks Jimmy where he was when Justa got in trouble with his brother. Jimmy said he had a feeling something bad was going to happen, so decided to go home. He talks about when he was told about the murder. Moran continues to ask about the situation, but Jimmy tells her he is still not sure what happened between Justa and John.

1:25’ 03” Jimmy talks about making his store bigger at the pressure of Indian Affiars, but it was too much to keep operating, so now there is only a store that sells junk food.

1:28’ 47” Jimmy talks about the loss of two of his children. He continues to discuss his children.

1: 34’ 36” End of tape.


Item is a audio interview recorded by Bridget Moran with Justa Monk.

Audiocassette Summary

00’03” Moran asks Justa how the Department of Indian Affairs party went at Other Art Cafe.

01’20” Moran tells Justa she has a number of questions regarding his political career. They talk about the number of bands in the area.

05’ 11” Justa talks about the nomination process for becoming tribal chief at the annual Assembly. He talks about when he was nominated and how he believed that he was nominated based on his character. Moran asks about the culture surrounding the Assembly, including entertainment. Justa tells her he did not participate in any of the activities.

12’ 41” Justa talks about his mother loving potlatch.

14’ 35” Moran asks Justa about the personal qualities it takes to be tribal chief. He tells her he was nominated because the people knew and trusted him.

16’ 03” Moran asks Justa about the role he played in getting the Department of Indian Affairs shut down. He tells her about leading a mandate to close the Prince George office through lawyers and the support of his people.

25’ 18” Moran asks Justa about the development of a school board for the reservations. He wants the school curriculum to teach the language and the culture. He has negotiated with the federal and provincial governments to implement these plans.

29’ 13” Moran asks Justa about his role in land claims. Justa talks about negotiating with the government to get some of the land back to his people. He has played a big role, he says, because he knows the area, the language, and the people. He talks about the long, drawn out process of planning the land claims concerns. Justa has a mandate as tribal chief to address land claims. He says the important part of the process is educating the people, white and non-white.

45’ 49” Moran is talking about Alcan locating grave markers to compensate for the damage done from the original Kemano project.

47’ 47” Moran asks Justa the role he has played in the Kemano II Project. He tells her that he took a big role because he saw the way of life being destroyed, never mind the environmental damage. He says he hates the concept of the project. Justa talks at length about the politics surrounding the Kemano II Project.

1:07’ 55” Moran asks Justa about which politicians he has met in his time as tribal chief. She encourages him to drop names. He lists a number of provincial and federal politicians.

1:10’ 45” Moran asks Justa about the Oka situation and any role he played in helping to negotiate the situation. He talks about an emergency Assembly. He discusses supporting the situation and telling his own people that they should not protest with the people from Oka to maintain peaceful land claims negotiations. He says he had to keep things calm in his own territory while offering support.

1:13’ 30” Moran asks Justa about the referendum regarding self-government. They talk about which way they voted.

1:16’ 20” Moran asks Justa about the consecration of the graveyards that were flooded by Kemano. He talks about how emotional the ceremony was and how much it hurt to be treated like second-class citizens. One woman described it as being chased out like a pack of coyotes.

1:19’ 50” Moran asks Justa about running for tribal chief again because he has unfinished business with the Kemano II Project.

1:20’50” Moran talks about the chapters of the book with Justa. They discuss some of the stories Moran is writing within the book.

1:28’ 42” End of tape.

CBC Radio - Judgment at Stoney Creek

Item is a recording of an audio segment from CBC Radio in which CBC Reporter Karen Tankard provides a documentary report on the CBC Radio program Daybreak on conditions on the Stoney Creek reserve, outside of the farming community of Vanderhoof, 15 years after the inquest into Coreen Thomas’ death in Stoney Creek, BC. Tankard interviews community residents about the inquest and discusses the state of racism in the town of Vanderhoof, BC in 1991 and concludes improvements have not been made.

Audiocassette Summary
Scope and Content: Tankard recalls that Maclean’s Magazine had written at the time of the inquest that “Vanderhoof was one of the most racially prejudiced towns in BC”

Tankard recalls Inquest of Coreen Gay Thomas’ death and includes archived interviews from the 1976 inquest. One Vanderhoof woman says people are putting “racial connotations’ around what is going on in Vanderhoof and that she has ‘many friendships’ with native people that ‘is not unusual’ While Minnie Thomas, a Band Councillor in 1976, discusses how poor white-native relations are on reserve and criticizes the state of housing and the economy on the Stoney Creek reserve

Tankard then talks to students at a dance on the reserve on Sept 15, 1991; she notes there is no high school for the native students. Native student Kevin Prince notes that “white kids don’t like native kids…”

Jackie Thomas who works at the Band Office states that the feelings of racism still exist here in 1991 Yet Vanderhoof Alderman Jack French states that he “doesn’t see it” in Vanderhoof now. Tankerd notes that Native people recall that the Inquest “shamed” the federal government into making some changes – some municipal services now exist and roads are paved in Stoney Creek, yet there is still 80% unemployment and a rise in drug and alcohol abuse. Gordon Smedley, editor of the Nechako newspaper discusses white-native relations 15 years after the inquest – and argues that a ‘core group’ of drug users impacts the image of natives in the community

Stoney Creek Elder Mary John argues that racism still exists and refers to how in the case of one native woman, who was a university graduate that she could not get even a clerical job in Vanderhoof

Vanderhoof resident Hugh Millard – argues that native residents from Stoney Creek are “not hampered by prejudice, but by a lack of education”

Bruce Smith, high school principal, expresses the challenges of keeping native kids in school; that activities have focused on liaison work with the Band. Smith notes the creation of the Yinka Dene Language Institute as means to keeping native students in school - seen as a ‘storefront’ school for adult education

Tankard notes RCMP also attempting to make changes and have hired a native constable

Yet Alderman Jack French notes there is not a lot of contact between the municipal council and the Stoney Creek Band Council – however argues that the municipality has avoided getting involved in such issues – “not our mandate” – the municipality’s mandate is to provide municipal services only.

Tankard recaps the findings of the Inquest – and questions if anything has really changed in Vanderhoof and Stoney Creek since the inquest.

While she recalls that Richard Redekopp was charged with criminal neglect that resulted in Thomas’ death – that due to a lack of evidence he was not convicted

Tankard surmises that perhaps the hope of the inquest that a reunion of white-native community in Vanderhoof and Stoney Creek was ‘too much’ and ‘unachievable’

End of documentary report by Karen Tankard

The Daybreak female radio broadcaster (unidentified) then invites Talk Back listeners to call in on the issue…..

End of tape

Granny Seymour Interview [parts 1 & 2]

Audio recording is of an interview by Bridget Moran with Margaret [Granny] Seymour at the PG Hospital in 1962. Moran later noted in another recording that the interview with Margaret Seymour was part of her social work. At the time of the interview Granny Seymour states she is 109 years old and says she is to celebrate her 110th birthday in June.

Audiocassette Summary

Scope and Content:
• Talks about a flood in Fort George
• Went on a canoe from Fort St. James to Fort George
• Clothing and food that Granny Seymour grew up with
• Living at Fort St. James
• Discusses the poverty of the First Nations after moving to Shelley
• Discusses the priest who came to the reserve often
• Would cook dinner for the priest as often as she could
• Discusses memories of being a child and living in Fort St. James
• Traveling to Vancouver
• Police presence in Fort St. James – no police; She notes there was no police presence – the HBC boss provided policing. Recounts memories of one native at Ft St James who killed his boss
• Traveling to Fort Fraser by dog team
• Step dancing – remembers dances at Ft St James with the HBC crew
• Cleaning houses - Remembers taking care of house at Hudson’s Bay fort in Ft St James
• Health – talks about her health Visitors to Granny – Priest comes sometimes [to visit her now at the hospital]
• Did not go to school
• Discusses memories of her parents James Bouchey and her mother and her siblings
• Seymour’s first husband worked for HBC Ft St James was a white man Edward Flameau- unhappy memories of her marriage
• Seymour’s second husband was Billy Seymour – happier memories
• Getting caught in a forest fire and a big storm coming from Ft St James
• Talks about looking after Hudson’s Bay store and trading for sugar/tea

Tape ends

Ken Rutherford (Tape 2)

Audio recording is the continuation of an interview by Bridget Moran with Ken Rutherford, educator and former municipal politician of Swift Current, Saskatchewan and later ran for the NDP in Fort George, BC. Rutherford discusses his involvement in politics in Saskatchewan, and subsequent move to Prince George, BC and interest in politics in BC.

Audiocassette Summary

  • Recalls the 1953 federal election when he ran unsuccessfully as CCF member for Swift Current, Saskatchewan
  • After election decided to move to Vancouver; started looking for jobs and took teaching job in Prince George, BC
  • Describes living conditions; living in cabin in Fort George and their early neighbors (Milners (sp?) in Prince George c.1950s
  • Recalls running in BC elections 3 times unsuccessful
  • Discusses MLA Ray Williston and the Wenner-Gren election issue
  • Discusses his thoughts on the current NDP; regarding the issue of Senate abolishment and what he sees as ‘undemocratic policies’

Mary John [Tape] 3 & 4

Audio recording consists of an interview conducted by Bridget Moran with Mary John.

Scope and Content: Continuation of Accession #2008. - Tape #1 & 2

00’02” Mary John continues to discuss their winter camp at Wedgewood; recalls being by herself in the shack; describes the camp; stove; and baking bannock

4’00” Mary describes winter at Wedgewood ; then would return to Stoney Creek

5’00” Mary describes Christmas; they never had turkey, a Christmas tree or presents because they had little money. Yet everyone came together and went to church

11’00”-16’00” Mary shows Bridget how to tan hides and use of oils for tanning and talks about teaching her children how to tan hides and talks about her children

16’00”-20’00” recalls more of how long they would stay at Wedgewood; talks about the village c.1930s; and the Indian Agent

20’00”-22’00” Bridget asks Mary about cases of tuberculosis; how many cases there were in the early days; she recalls working for one white woman and she bought a coat with a fur collar that costs $13.00; also working for Mrs. Silver c.1927

23’00” Bridget asks her about their camp in Vanderhoof; Mary recalls they camped in tents when they went to Prince George; many times went by horse.

24’00”-26’00” Marcy recalls traveling to Shelley for a potlatch and to put up a tombstone for a relative; and then traveling to Fort George. Mary describes traveling to Shelley to the Indian Reserve at one time for a week; memories of people and relatives there and at Fort George

27’00”-28’00” Bridget asks her about the purpose of a potlatch; She describes that it is somewhat of a “gathering” same as for white people, Bridget notes a potluck supper. Mary describes food at a potlatch; memories of people and relatives at Shelley

30’00”-36’00” Mary states she married Lazare John on June 11, 1929 when she was 16 years old; Mary describes the wedding; and the watchman arranging the wedding. She explains that the watchman was like a councilor who looks after the wedding; a heredity chief appoints them (Bridget mentions her tape recorder had been stolen so is asking again about when they were married). Says she did not know her husband before her wedding. Mary talks about her husband’s family; and also her thoughts about getting married so young and with no knowledge of men.

36’00”-37’00” Briefly talks about her thoughts on sex

38’00”-41’00” Talks about early married life with in-laws close-by; no privacy

42’00”-44’00” Talks about racial problems she experienced; her father was a white man

44’00”-46’00” Living conditions for Mary John; poor relationship with mother-in-law; Mary wanted to have her own house

End of tape

Mary John [Tape] 5 & 6

Audio recording consists of an interview conducted by Bridget Moran with Mary John.

Audiocassette Summary

Scope and Content: Tape recording is an interview between Bridget Moran and Mary John – a continuation of interviews.

Side 1
0’02” Bridget asks Mary when she quit smoking - in 1972

1’00” Mary notes there was no talk of sex life; not part of First Nations culture

2’00” Mary talks about when she started working at the hospital; she was able to save money and her husband drove her back and forth; lived in a tent to save money; they pumped water to drink from a well 1 mile away so that they did not get sick; she notes she began working at hospital after her husband lost his seasonal job

5’00” Mary notes they had to have a tribunal hearing to get old age pension for her husband because his birth was not registered

7’00” Mary recalls that the Depression did not hit reserves as hard as white people because ‘they had always been poor’; yet at that time they were never without food. She talks about tough times during the Depression – could not find work only relief; got used clothing from white people

10’00” Mary refers to a Mrs. Campbell, a white woman who was a widow and had small children who was also poor in the Depression and showed her how to repair socks

12’00” She notes that they did not have much of a relationship with the Indian Agent – they knew he existed but they did not see him much; viewed him as a representative for the Indians; some [of the Indian Agents] were good and some were bad; she describes difficulties with the Indian Agent and getting little food: only a single ration (24 bag of flour; 5 lb bag of rice, bag of salt; ½ lb tea and 2 lbs lard) to last a family for a month and also flannelette material to make bed clothes. Indian Agent Office was in Vanderhoof

17’00” Mary recalls that the watchmen quit in the 40s – that is when marriages stopped being arranged; there were no Band Managers then; that only ‘started recently’

19’00” Mary talks about the priest who lived on the reserve in the 1940s; she does not know whether the [Catholic] Church was good for her people. Does not think that the Catholic Church was good for Indian Culture – they were the ones that ‘took it away’ […] tried to beat it out of the children

24’00” She notes that since that time she has been asked to teach dancing and classes in Indian culture; notes that some children can speak “Indian” in Mary’s family; notes her children can speak their own language

27’00” Mary talks about when the residential school Lejac closed; that it was taken over by the Department of DIA

29’00” Mary sees ‘Alcohol as the worst problem among First Nation’ – she recalls that a group of them began to get together to ‘pray and work with people who needed the most help’; she notes that while native people were not allowed to buy alcohol before and now have the right to get it - it has since become a problem; she describes the effect of alcohol on the community. She notes that although she and her husband did drink at one time she doesn’t anymore and recognized it as a problem back in the 1950s. She describes her feelings after a nephew was killed in an alcohol-related accident and how this convinced her to quit drinking; it was a choice she made on her own

40’00” Talks about early years when they were married and how difficult life was at that time; she recalls going to see the children at Lejac and camping out to visit them; she describes how to make a camp with spruce boughs and bringing food to camp

45’00” Describes the furniture and stove they had in their house when Ernie (son) was born A lot of time spent with one another for recreation

(Continuation on side B – labeled as #6)

Side 2
48’00” Mary John talks about the church priest – would not come out every Sunday for Mass – only started recently having mass frequently; talks about the hospital where nuns worked;

56’00” Bridget asks her about recreation on the reserve; Mary talks about clothing used on sports team – played Stellako and other reserves; “Baseball was popular” – hardball; she recalls going to Prince George to watch ball tournaments

60’00” Discusses recreation in early years; would have dances at people’s houses

62’00” Mary discusses white-native relations; ‘we never talked about it’ there were white people who were ‘good people’ that she did work for; cases of racial tensions in Vanderhoof

67’00” Bridget asks her if any white people ever came to visit her home; Mary notes that none came out to the reserve – the only one that use to come out was the priest and remembers the priest eating breakfast at her home. But “Prince George wasn’t like that” She tells of racist comments even now that she experienced with a new doctor in town

End of session – tape ends temporarily Start up of session again

74’00” Mary John talks about their efforts to educate and pass on their culture to younger generations; they now teach survival in the bush. She explains that this is to get native youths to experience being in the bush and teach them how to prepare food at camp; how to prepare fish and smoke fish. She talks about the location of the survival camp, close to Wedgewood; “sometimes would have close to 12 students”

End of session – tape ends temporarily Start up of session again
83’00” Mary talks about Aunt Mary Sutherland. Bridget asks about Mary’s husband [Lazare] his family history.

88’00” Bridget asks Mary about the history of Stoney Creek Reserve; Mary then proceeds to note the names of the families who lived at the reserve. She notes that she was originally born at Fort George. They talk about an Indian Agent in the 1950s and the building of houses on the reserve

92’00” Talks about family logging business

End of tape

Mary John [Tape] 7 & 8

Audio recording consists of an interview conducted by Bridget Moran with Mary John.

Audiocassette Summary

Side 1
0’02” Improvements within the Department of Indian Affairs; she notes that Indian Affairs was tricking the band. The Indian Agent took a logging contract away from Mary John’s son Ernie because he refused to pay the rate that they wanted in stumpage fees

4’00” Mary John recalls when the community started to speak up against Department of Indian Affairs about 1942. She recalls the Elders Society and the Indian Homemakers Association. She explains that the Elders Society supports the preservation of the Indian culture and arts/crafts; which involves set up of activities including summer camps; showing youths how to use fishing and hunting tools and recreation tools. Bridget asks about Elders involved in the Society.

13’00” Mary talks about teaching Indian language at the school for the youths and also teaching previously in the village for the children yet none of the children continue to speak their language today. But now with parents speaking at home it’s difficult to have them continue to speak their language

16’00” Bridget asks Mary to recall the time when she was named Citizen of the Year in Vanderhoof in 1978. Mary shows Bridget the award and recalls that they ‘had a big dinner’ for her. Mary notes it was a surprise, Mrs. Campbell brought her there – Mary John recalls that she didn’t have a speech planned

19’00” Bridget asks her to explain about the tanning of hides. Mary explains the process from the time of the shooting of the moose; fleshing and scraping of the hide. She explains how to use the knife on the hide so you can see the tissues of the skin. Then Mary turns over the hide to the hair side and shaves off the hair on the hide and then shows Bridget how it is scraped. They discuss the blade and how it is sharp. She explains it is then washed many times to clean the blood off and then it is stretched. She explains it is then spread with oil/ possibly fish oil – the whole hide is oiled up and then left about a week to dry. Then once dry you use another scraper to ensure it is soft. She notes it is a lot of hard work and time to complete. They then talk about smoking of the hides and Mary shows Bridget hides that she had made herself. Mary explains that the Elders have a class for the youths to show them how to tan hides.

29’00” Bridget asks Mary about the last potlatch held. Mary explains what a potlatch is and when it is viewed as a pay-out. A potlatch is thrown to pay back another clan for a service or a kindness that was done to them. She talks about potlatches for deceased persons; and how clans host potlatches. She talks about the foods prepared at a potlatch. Mary recalls “it can cost thousands of dollars” and notes plans in progress for the next potlatch to be held in August in Stoney Creek.

36’00” Recalls when potlatches were made illegal – recalls gifts she received years before at potlatches and ‘that someone benefits from it’ Years ago hides and dried goods were given out. Potlatches started up again in about 1934 and they held a potlatch for her mother when she died.

40’00” Mary explains there are two clans at Stoney Creek – the Frog and the Grouse; she explains that you don’t marry within your own clan.

45’00” Recalls the death of some of her relatives

End of Side 1

Side 2
45’02” Mary talks about her siblings who are still alive

48’00” Talks about the preparation and setting of nets in canoes for fishing

52’00” notes people like to be called native – not Indian

52’30” Bridget asks Mary what she thinks that has changed that is good? She thinks that the good things are better homes, electricity, cars, education, transportation and better roads. She fears there isn’t as much closeness as there was years ago among families – now people sit at home and watch TV. “People use to do things together – they don’t anymore.” Mary points out that another good thing is that people now get pensions.

56’00 Mary John speaks about her sewing business that she now has and the making of mukluks and moccasins

57’00 Bridget recalls bringing her Mother to Stoney Creek Reserve c.1954 and her mother noting her poor life in Ireland and recalling the poor people she saw on the reserve at that time and telling Bridget she had to help those people

59’00 they both refer to poor services done by the Department of Indian Affairs in the 1950s

End of tape

Mary John

Audio recording consists of an interview conducted by Bridget Moran with Mary John.

Audiocassette Summary
Context: Tape recording is an interview between Bridget and Mary John in which Bridget initially asks Mary John about events after the inquest into Coreen Thomas’s death. Bridget notes also that she wants to provide an update on Mary John’s life 10 years after the inquest.

Side 1
00’05” Bridget asks Mary John about her role in the Coreen Thomas inquest. Mary thinks that she discovered Coreen’s death due to the ringing of the church bells [to announce a death]. She tries to recall the series of events leading up to her time being involved in getting an inquest. Recalls Sophie Thomas’ desire to have an inquest into her death

6’00” -10’00” She recalls that the [Indian] Homemakers Association became involved in attempting to get an inquest. She says ‘she was just tagging along with it …I was not a fighter” Bridget notes that Harry Rankin stayed at Helen’s house when he represented the Homemakers Association at the inquest. Bridget recalls the ‘marvellous’ dinner that was put on for them at the time of the inquest by Mary John and Helen. Mary John notes it was at the invitation of the Homemakers Association for the group to come to her house.

10’:00”-14’00” Bridget and Mary talk about follow-up to the inquest and Coreen’s family.

14’50”- 25’00” Mary talks about her involvement as well as others in the creation of the Elders Society after the death of Mary’s son due to drowning in 1978. The Society had workshops in an effort to revive their culture with the hope of having the younger generations take pride in their culture. One of the activities was the building of the Potlatch House in 1980 where they did traditional activities including tanning of hides.Talks about acquiring the land to build the potlatch house and having the Chief take care of getting the land from BCR; the Society cleared the land twice over to set up the house. Mary explains that the Society acquired funding of $93,000.00 from ARDA [?] to clear the land from the logs and build the house.

26’00”-30’00” Mary talks about a new project that the Society has to build 10 rental tourist cabins as a business for the youth to operate. Bridget suggests it could be similar to that at K’san. Mary also explains that there is a cook-house at the Potlatch House as well and that it has been used for community events, weddings, dinners, organizational events also.

Tape stops momentarily and starts again

30’05”- 36’00” Mary talks about the drowning of her son and finding of his body in 1978 as well as other tragedies that happened in the community which led to the creation of the Elders Society to assist the youth

36’30” -39’30” Mary talks about the joys of finally having her own house and the building of the house

39’32” -42’40” Mary talks about the organizations that she is involved in now. She talks about a film made in the community about social workers coming in the community to work with Elders to care for issues related to youth. She notes that ‘that’s when the ice broke’ and it made a difference.

43’00” She talks about a dinner that she holds every year for the police officers to thank them for the service they do for society

43’30” Talks about fishing at Fraser Lake

44’00” -46’00” Mary talks about her work now at her house to teach the youth about their culture: making of baskets, moccasins, tanning of hides

End of side 1

Side 2
46’30”-48’00” Mary continues to talk about the activities that she does with native youth to educate them about their culture

48’50” Bridget asks about whether the youth are involved in tree-planting and asks another woman in the room (Bernice?)

50’00” – 56’00” Bridget asks what her three wishes are for her people: better lives; more education for the young people to have better jobs; they need to get out to the white world and not be so isolated; she refers to when she worked in ‘the white world’ She talks about the isolation of the reserve and yet the protection that it offers to the people as well. Bridget and Mary talk about the reserve offering a way to protect the native culture. Bridget asks why it is important to protect their culture. Mary notes their culture is so important; she notes that other cultures like Japan and China haven’t lost their culture so why should the natives.

56’05” Mary notes that none of the grandchildren speak Carrier and the need to protect their culture and language when being surrounded by a white community. Refers to her grandson Fabian who is in the room

57’00” Bridget recalls a Fort St. James woman who tried to keep native kids out of white schools. She wanted them to be kept on the reserve so that they didn’t lose their culture. She talks about the fight by many to get their native status back – those whose one parent is not native

58’00” Mary talks about her worries for the young native people in the community who fear they have no future and who have no employment or education.

End of tape

James McCallum (Tape 1 - Side #1 & #2)

Audio recording consists of an interview by Bridget Moran with James McCallum recalling his life, first in Scotland, then Montana and then as a wheat farmer in Success, Saskatchewan. McCallum (1891-1983) served on several community organizations including delegate of the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool (1938-1944) and director (1944-63). James McCallum died January 9, 1983 in Swift Current, Saskatchewan age 91.

Audiocassette Summary

  • McCallum family moved from rural Scotland to Montana and later Success, Saskatchewan. James McCallum born in Scotland – Nov 12, 1891
  • James’ family left Scotland c.1899 via the ship “Caledonia” and came to Montana
  • In 1904 his father decided to move the family
  • Recalls living in Montana
  • Recalls night at the Shaw farm in Montana with horse thieves the night his brother Allan was born
  • Discusses trek to Saskatchewan arriving first in Swift Current, Saskatchewan;
  • Homesteaded in Success [District], Saskatchewan
  • Family’s land was Government land
  • Moved from homestead to another farm
  • Recalls his schooling; public school in Scotland; private school in Canada
  • Talks about ranching
  • Discusses income of family
  • Describes types of farm machinery and combines; walking plow
  • Talks about boundaries for land – no fences etc.
  • Provides memories of families from the community
  • Recalls memories of his mother managing household on farm
  • Recalls work with threshing groups
  • Recalls beginning of the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool to ensure farmers received fair payment for sale of their wheat
  • Recalls attending meetings as delegate for the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool at the Canadian Federation of Agriculture; meetings held in various locales from Montreal to Vancouver

End of tape

"Where Words Come Sweet"

Audio recording consists of Bridget Moran reading chapter excerpts from her manuscript “Where Words Come Sweet” [later title of manuscript is “The Horizontal Land” which tells the tale of the Doonan family, Kate who Bridget notes “developed as a volatile woman, quick to anger, quick to tears” and her husband Charlie, a “classic quiet Irishman, in fact, rather like my own father” and their children who emigrate to the South Saskatchewan River country in September 1924. As Moran describes in a letter “in short, my novel is a rather light-hearted, hopefully, authentic look at the Saskatchewan of 1924. I was at pains to avoid the dust storm-grasshopper-flat terrain syndrome, and instead to portray the beauty of south Saskatchewan as I knew it, the wonderful blend of ethnic groups, and the richness in character of the people who have lived there.”

Audiocassette Summary
Side 1
Title: Where Words Come Sweet #1

Scope and Content: Bridget Moran reads a chapter from her story entitled “Where Words Come Sweet”. The account of the Doonan family – Charlie and Kate and their children living in the pre-Depression era on the Canadian Prairies

  • Kate immerses herself in the Catholic church and its rituals
  • Priest Father Boncoeur talks about generosity of those who donate to the Church
  • Charlie has difficulty with the Church asking for money same as in Ireland and leaves the Church because of it;
  • Conflict between Charlie & Kate regarding religion
  • Prairie winter blizzard described
  • End of chapter

In this audio segment Bridget reads excerpt from Chapter 17 “Hail Mary, Full of Grace” which provides the account of Father Duroc who Bridget notes in the chapter synopsis “reads out the contributors and the contributions to the church, leading to war in the Doonan household.” And of Kate’s immersion in the Catholic faith and its rituals

Side 2
Title: Where Winds Come Sweet #2

Scope & Content: Bridget Moran explains that the inspiration for the title of the manuscript, Where Winds Come Sweet was derived from a poem by Pauline Johnson – Harvest Time. Bridget proceeds to read the poem. Then Bridget describes the main characters and provides a brief synopsis: The story of an Irish Catholic family, the Doonans, who came from Ireland, originally to Ontario and then to the South Saskatchewan River country in 1924. Bridget describes the characters: Kate & Charlie Doonan, and their kids: Kevin, Patty, Mick, Bridie, Mary, and J.T. She also describes two other characters Barney and Gladys Mullins– caretakers. Bridget reads a version of the chapter “The Teacher Cometh” – noted on audio recording as Chapter 7 [in a later version of this manuscript from November 1981 this chapter is Chapter 14]. The chapter describes the coming of a school teacher Miss Doris Sutton who makes life difficult for the residents – specifically the women folk as the men in the community come to be enamoured with her. This chapter describes how Kate overcomes her dislike for the teacher Miss Sutton, how she spends a weekend with the Doonans and how they become friends.

Bridget then provides a synopsis of another chapter that she entitles on the recording as “Unholy Deadlock” In a later version of the manuscript from November 1981 this chapter is entitled “Give Us This Day” Chapter 16 and describes how Father Duroc arrives in the community in January 1925 and stays with the French Canadian family the Bouchard’s]

In the next audio segment Bridget reads excerpt from Chapter 17 “Hail Mary, Full of Grace” which provides the account of Father Duroc who Bridget notes in the chapter synopsis “reads out the contributors and the contributions to the church, leading to war in the Doonan household.”

Bridget Moran in Group Seated in Living Room

Photograph depicts group of 10 women and men gathered around couch in unidentified room. Long table set with food and decorations can be seen in left background. Moran sits in left corner of couch.

Moran Reading Convocation Address

Photograph depicts Moran wearing regalia and standing at podium while reading at the University of Northern British Columbia in Prince George, B.C. Group sits in foreground and background. Flags and speakers can be seen against far wall.

Moran at UNBC Convocation

Photograph depicts Moran wearing regalia and holding an unidentified item in the Canfor lecture theater at the University of Northern British Columbia in Prince George, B.C. Group sits against wall in foreground and in theater seats in background. Flags and speakers can be seen against far wall. Cameras and photographers also visible in image.

Backyard Barbeque Celebrating Convocation

Photograph depicts group of men and women eating on deck attached to unknown house. Photo believed to have been taken during event held to celebrate Bridget Moran receiving an Honourary Law Degree from the University of Northern British Columbia in Prince George, B.C.

Close View of Bridget Signing Book

Photograph depicts Bridget Moran wearing University of Victoria regalia, seated at table with large book. Curtains hang in background, poinsettia plant sits on far right.

Bridget Moran & David Strong

Photograph depicts Moran and Strong wearing full regalia, and shaking hands while holding unidentified item. Curtain hangs in background.

Bridget Moran Accepting Honourary Law Degree at UNBC Convocation Ceremony

Photograph depicts Moran and others in regalia in the Canfor Theatre at the University of Northern British Columbia in Prince George, B.C. Moran walks to podium, flags and camera equipment are also visible in auditorium. Audience sits in foreground. Accompanying note from Maureen Faulkner: "You are being summoned! You are very nervous here."

Bridget Moran Delivering Convocation Address at UNBC

Photograph depicts Moran and others in regalia in the Canfor Theatre at the University of Northern British Columbia in Prince George, B.C. Moran stands in front at podium, flags against wall in background. Audience sits in foreground. Accompanying note from Maureen Faulkner: "You are giving the convocation address. Nicely done! It's wonderful to know you and your family. I'm proud of you." Photo taken on the day Bridget Moran received an Honourary Law Degree.

Family of Bridget Moran at UNBC Convocation Ceremony

Photograph depicts men, women, and infant sitting in crowded Canfor Theatre at the University of Northern British Columbia in Prince George, B.C. Accompanying note from Maureen Faulkner: "Your family. now behind R [Roseanne Moran] + me. look on with pride & interest." Photo taken on the day Bridget Moran received an Honourary Law Degree.

Bridget Moran & Paul Ramsey after UNBC Convocation Ceremony

Photograph depicts Moran wearing regalia, arms linked with Ramsey in Agora courtyard at the University of Northern British Columbia in Prince George, B.C. Unidentified individuals stand near Winter Garden in background. Accompanying note from Maureen Faulkner: "Your friend." Photo taken on the day Moran received an Honourary Law Degree.

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