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Archaeo Research Ltd. reports

File consists of digital scans of the following reports regarding indigenous land use:

  • Archeo Tech Associates. "An Aboriginal Sustenance Impact Assessment of the Quesnel River Gold Development Project, near Quesnel, B.C.". Prepared for the Mine Review and Permitting Branch, Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources. December 1993.
  • Archeo Tech Associates. "An Aboriginal Sustenance Impact Assessment of the Kemess South Gold-Copper Project: A Status Report". Prepared for El Condor Resources Ltd. September 1995.
  • John Dewhirst and Archaeo Research Ltd. "Tsilhqot'in Use and Occupancy of the Xeni Gwet'in Claim Area, 1793-1864". Prepared for Chief Roger William, Xeni Gwet'in First Nation Government and Woodward & Company. 4 August 2005.

Dr. Robin Fisher fonds

  • 2019.9
  • Fundo
  • 1992-2002

This fonds encompasses the academic and administrative career of esteemed Canadian historian Dr. Robin Fisher during his tenure at the University of Northern British Columbia. The records span Dr. Fisher's appointments at UNBC as professor, founding chair of the Department of History, Dean of Arts and Science, and Dean of the College of Arts, Social and Health Sciences.

Series include:

  1. Personal Records relating to Dr. Fisher's various appointments at UNBC
  2. Treaty Advisory records originating from Dr. Fisher's involvement in the Northern Interior Regional Advisory Committee and other treaty process advisory activities
  3. Teaching records relating to the development of Dr. Fisher's undergraduate and graduate courses, primarily in the Department of History
  4. Conferences & Service records relating to conferences attended or organized by Dr. Fisher, as well as activities given in service to the University or the community

Dr. Robin Fisher

Treaty Advisory

Series consists of treaty process advisory records, many of which came out of Dr. Robin Fisher's involvement in the Northern Interior Regional Advisory Committee. Dr. Fisher was often asked to act as a resource person, moderator, or advisor on First Nations treaty-related matters due to his knowledge of the history of First Nation-European relations.

Treaty advisory resource material

File consists of:

  • Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. "Building a New Relationship with First Nations in British Columbia: Canada's Response to the Report of the B.C. Claims Task Force", 1991.
  • BC Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs. "In Fairness to All: Moving Towards Treaty Settlements in British Columbia", 1991.
  • Ministry of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. "Aboriginal Self-Government Federal Policy Guide", 1995.
  • Proceedings documenting a presentation by Dr. Robin Fisher to the Select Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs at the BC Legislative Assembly on Monday Oct. 28, 1996 in Smithers, BC
  • Map prepared for the Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs showing the territory boundaries via a "Statement of Intent for the Lheit-lit'en Nation", 1996.
  • BC Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs. "Glossary of Treaty-Related Terms", 1997.
  • First Nations Education Steering Committee, B.C. Teacher's Federation. "Understanding the B.C. Treaty Process: An Opportunity for Dialogue", 1997.
  • BC Treaty Commission Annual Report, 1995-1996
  • BC Treaty Commission Annual Report, 1997
  • Federal Treaty Negotiation Office. "The Treaty Negotiation Process", 1997.
  • A commemorative issue of "Hak'ak'a'a" newsletter (August 4, 1998) published by the Nisga'a Tribal Council
  • Issues of the Canadian Federal Treaty Negotiation Office publication "Treaty News", including issues from April 1995, July 1996, December 1996, July 1997, December 1997, March 1998, June 1998, October 1999, June 1999, March 2000, June 2000, Winter 2001

Northern Interior Regional Advisory Committee, 1998

Dr. Robin Fisher was a member of the Northern Interior Regional Advisory Committee for treaty process in British Columbia. File consists of meeting minutes, correspondence, documents for discussion, agendas, and notes.

Northern Interior Regional Advisory Committee, April-June 1997

Dr. Robin Fisher was a member of the Northern Interior Regional Advisory Committee for treaty process in British Columbia. File consists of meeting minutes, correspondence, documents for discussion, agendas, and notes. Includes: Provincial response to Ts'kw'aylaxw First Nations Position Paper Yekooche First Nation Governance: A Discussion Paper Cheslatta Treaty Discussions Community Profile: Carrier Nation Traditional Territory Carrier songs adapted to Lheidli T'enneh dialect

Prince George Area-Wide Workshop on Governance

Dr. Robin Fisher was a member of the Northern Interior Regional Advisory Committee for treaty process in British Columbia. File consists of meeting minutes, correspondence, agendas, and notes for the 1998 Prince George Area-Wide Workshop on Governance.

Northern Interior Regional Advisory Committee, February 1995 - December 1996

Dr. Robin Fisher was a member of the Northern Interior Regional Advisory Committee for treaty process in British Columbia. File consists of meeting minutes, correspondence, documents for discussion, agendas, and notes. Includes results from public forums on treaty negotiations and a map of traditional territories of British Columbia First Nations.

Secwepemc Land Claims Forum

File consists of correspondence and a program for the "Secwepemc Land Claims Forum" in Kamloops. Dr. Robin Fisher was invited as a "resource person" to speak at the forum.

Bridget Moran fonds

  • 2008.3
  • Fundo
  • 1935 - 1999, predominate 1954 - 1996

This fonds illustrates Bridget Moran’s careers as a writer, a social worker and a social activist primarily within the Prince George region of British Columbia. This fonds also contains records pertaining to her personal relationships with family and friends and her receipt of various honours and awards.

Types of records reflective of her career as a writer include: published articles and unpublished manuscripts, drafts and front cover mock-ups, correspondence with editors from Arsenal Pulp Press, grant applications, notebooks, background material, writer’s workshop invitations and overviews, photographs, oral history interviews and transcripts, and VHS recordings of classroom talks given by Bridget Moran, Mary John and Justa Monk re: her publications.

Types of records reflective of her career as a social worker and social activist include: annual reports, work journals, correspondence and published newspaper articles re: social policy, photographs, and general background material. Correspondence, photographs and newspaper clippings highlight her personal relationships, while her receipt of honours and awards is demonstrated through copies of letters of recommendation, newspaper clippings, photographs, VHS recordings of award ceremonies, event itineraries, congratulatory correspondence, and invitations.

The Bridget Moran fonds has been divided into the following four series:

  1. Published and Unpublished Materials
  2. Career Related Materials
  3. Personal Papers and Correspondence
  4. Honours and Awards.

Moran, Bridget

Published and Unpublished Materials

Series consists of newspaper clippings, correspondence, photographs, pamphlets, newsletters, advertisements, contracts, notebooks, audiocassettes of oral interviews and readings, transcripts, book launch announcements, front cover mock-ups, edited drafts, manuscripts, fact sheets, poems, catalogues, bookmarks, skits, conference events programme, poster, grant applications and related correspondence, a wooden placard, handwritten notes, book reviews, inquest reports, background material, VHS recordings of classroom talks given by Bridget Moran, Mary John and Justa Monk re: her publications, and ephemera. This series contains material from all five of her publications:

  1. (1988) Stoney Creek Woman: The Story of Mary John. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press.
  2. (1990) Judgment at Stoney Creek. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press
  3. (1992) A Little Rebellion. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press.
  4. (1994) Justa: A First Nations Leader. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press.
  5. (1996) Prince George Remembered. Prince George, British Columbia: Moran Publishing.
    This series also consists of, but is not limited to, a number of unpublished manuscripts and drafts and/or writing contest submissions also written by Bridget Moran, such as:
    • "Mary and Me" (ca. 1998)
    • "Where Winds Come Sweet" (ca. 1981)
    • "The Horizontal Land" (ca. 1992)
    • "The Summer of '81"
    • "The Relief Cheque" (ca. 1998)
    • "The Case of the Box of Matches" (ca. 1987)
    • "Unholy Deadlock" (ca. 1990)
    • "The Numbers Game"
    • "Reflections on Theme" (ca. 1967)
    • "Come Hell or High Water" (ca. 1976)
    • "Man Alive"
    • "The Deadbeat Mystique"
    • "Hell on Wheels"
    • "Backstairs at the Palace"
    • "James MacCallum" (ca. 1984)
    • "Hushaby, Baby" (ca. 1981)
    • "The Decline and Fall of Mr. Sullivan"
    • "Case History of a Gadfly"
    • "Welfare and the Good Life"
    • "Childhood Memories" (ca. 1976)
    • "The Three Musketeers" (ca. 1974-75)
    • "A Child's Christmas in Saskatchewan" (ca. 1979)
    • "Diary of Success Homecoming"
    • "My Old Flame" (ca. 1992)
    • "O Ye Dry Bones" (ca. 1996)
    • "Supper, Little Children" (ca. 1983).

Island Cache Recovery Project Collection

  • 2003.11
  • Coleção
  • 1998-2000

Collection consists of material resulting from Dr. Mike Evan's Island Cache Recovery Project Collection. Includes oral history interviews of former Island Cache (Cottonwood Island) residents on recording media (cassette and VHS) as well as transcripts of the oral histories. Also includes administrative records for the project and photocopies of background research material used for the project, such as Prince George city records, newspaper clippings, photographs, and correspondence.

Evans, Michael John

Al Elsey Moving Images Collection

  • 2006.25
  • Coleção
  • 1961 - 2000, predominant 1961-1967

Fonds consists of original, silent 16mm reels that portray the natural, social and land use history of the Bella Coola and Chilcotin regions named the "Natural and Guiding History of the Bella Coola and Chilcotin Regions".

Possible locations that Al Elsey filmed include: Bella Coola, Bella Bella, Anahim Lake, Alert Bay, Nimpo Lake, Bulkey Valley, the Rainbow Mountains, Tweedsmuir Provincial Park, Dean River, Bella Coola River, Tchaha Lake, the Chilcotin region, the Ulkatcho Mountains, Lassard Lake, Fenton Lake, Atnarko River, Wells Gray Park, and Holt Homestead.

R. J. Baker fonds

  • 2000.14
  • Fundo
  • 1960- 1961; 1989-1990

The R.J. Baker fonds is made up of two distinct series. The first consists of textual materials including reports and correspondence between R.J. Baker and the BC Ministry of Advanced Education and Job Training, as well as, copies of reports written by other consultants and by the Implementation Planning Group - all of which have as their subject the creation of a university in northern British Columbia. The second series consists of 26 audio reels created on the Nadleh Whuten (Nautley-Fort Fraser) First Nation community in 1960-61 by Baker while studying the Carrier language in Nautley, BC. The recordings comprise a linguistic study of the Carrier language of that distinct area.

Baker, Ron James

McGregor Model Forest Association fonds

  • 2007.11
  • Fundo
  • 1992-2007

Fonds consists of the McGregor Model Forest records documenting the operational history of the model forest from 1992 through 2007. These records document the various functions of the McGregor Model Forest reflected in the four series:

  • 1) Projects and Research consisting of reports, proposals, and project and research materials ranging from 1994 to 2006
  • 2) McGregor Model Forest Association Administration records largely consisting of Board of Directors Meeting Minutes from 1993 - 1997; work plans from 1994 - 1997, 2002 - 2003; annual reports from 1995 - 2006; Technical Steering Committee Meeting Minutes from 1993 - 1997
  • 3) Publications by the McGregor Model Forest Association, the Canadian Model Forest Network, Natural Resources Canada, or other forest research organizations
  • 4) Promotional Materials including materials from outreach events such as posters, presentation slides, and ephemera.

McGregor Model Forest Association

First Nations boom crews

Attached description: Crews of sure-footed boom men in the Nass area are largely composed of native Indians, who work throughout the year on logging operations of Twinriver Timber Limited. Their homes are located near Nass River in the towns of Aiyansh, New Aiyansh, Greenville, and Canyon City.

Interior of chief's house in Masset, Queen Charlotte Islands, BC

Handwritten annotation on verso of photograph reads: "W.E. Collison Masset. Interior of Chief [Weah's?] house".

Caption under printed version of photo in W.H. Collison's book 'In the Wake of the War Canoe': "The house is about 40 feet square, forming one large room. The upper cubicles are on a level with the ground, which in front of them is excavated so that the fireplace in the centre is twelve feet below the surface. A ledge, for the use of slaves and dependents, is left half-way down."

Gitlakdamix Village Council

Photograph depicts 8 men posing in suits and ties, and a young girl, Ruth Adams, holding trophy seated in foreground. The group is gathered in open field, large building and hills visible in distance. Man on far right stands in uniform.

Handwritten annotation on verso reads: "Gitlakdamix Village Council 1923. [Charlie Morven] Chairman. / Geo. Manase. / John Davis. / Dennis Woods. / Andrew Nass. / James Adams. Secretary. / Frank Blackwing. Chief Constable. / Walter McMillan (Nass). Constable."

John McCormick Cariboo Letter January 31, 1869

Item consists of a letter written by John McCormick to a person named James; it is not made clear if James is a friend or relative. In both his letter to James, John McCormick makes several references to Victoria. His familiarity with Victoria suggests that he may have travelled from Victoria to Barkerville to mine for gold. In his letters to James, John McCormick describes having no money and living under poor conditions. He mentions the great fire that swept through Barkerville and that he lost nothing due to its distance from his house. McCormick also mentions that the Indians are dying quickly of Small Pox in Victoria.

Chief's lodge and totem, Nass River, BC

Photograph depicts two men standing at base of totem pole in front of large elaborate lodge building with post reading "MINESQU". Smaller structure stands in background (elevated cache?).

Handwritten annotation on verso reads: "Chapter XXIV. No. 3. A chief's lodge and totem Nass River."

Nisga'a chiefs and families posing with goods from potlatch

Three men stand in centre, each wearing a chief's dress and head-dress. Family members stand and sit on either side. Carved boxes and masks are positioned in foreground. The group poses in front of drapery hung against tall wooden wall.

Community members have stated that the people in this photo are from the Gitwilluyaxw clan from the wolf tribal house of Ksdiyaawak. The photo was taken at Gitlax̱t’aamiks along the Nass River.

Handwritten annotation on verso reads: "Tsimpshian Chiefs & family. Goods [for or fr.] Potlatch".

Nedra Jane Paul collection

  • 2001.15
  • Coleção
  • 1964-1971

Fonds consists of the personal records of Nedra (Ginty) Jane Paul [b. ca.1920-d. 1990]. Personal records include the 1938 Lord Byng High School Annual, 2 teaching certificates, and 1 photograph. Paul worked as a teacher in the Chilcotin and Bella Coola regions of BC and the primary items of the collection are 8 recordings generated by her with members of First Nations Communities at Alkali, Red Stone, Kleena Kleene and Bella Coola from 1964-1971. There are 8 original audio reel to reel recordings (and 2 tapes which are copies of the recordings later created by P.J. Thomas, who accompanied Paul on the interviews). Recordings include stories and songs.

Paul, Nedra Jane

"First Nation Participation in Canada's Model Forest Program 1992-1997: Accomplishments and Opportunities"

File consists of the "First Nation Participation in Canada's Model Forest Program 1992-1997: Accomplishments and Opportunities" a report prepared by the Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada. This report describes the First Nations participation in Canada's Model Forest Program with details on the Western Newfoundland Model Forest, the Fundy Model Forest, the Bas-Saint-Laurent Model Forest, the Eastern Ontario Model Forest, Lake Abitibi Model Forest, Manitoba Model Forest, Prince Albert Model Forest, and the Foothills Model Forest.

"McGregor Model Forest: First Nation Youth Programs in the Natural Resource Sector of British Columbia"

File consists of "McGregor Model Forest: First Nation Youth Programs in the Natural Resource Sector of British Columbia" by Brandon W. Prince. Includes case studies of Adams Lake Indian Band (Sexqeltqi'n), Duke Energy: Gas Transmission, the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Strategy, Nicola Valley Institute of Technology - Natural Resources Technology Program, and UBC Summer Forestry Camp for First Nation Youth.

"Report to the McGregor Model Forest Association: Development Plan for Theme 4: 'First Nations Sustainable Forestry Management' and A Report on 'Consolidating Traditional Ecological Knowledge Tools within the McGregor Model Forest (PG TSA)"

File consists "Report to the McGregor Model Forest Association: Development Plan for Theme 4: 'First Nations Sustainable Forestry Management' and a Report on 'Consolidating Traditional Ecological Knowledge Tools within the McGregor Model Forest (PG TSA)" Submitted by Annie L. Booth and Norm Skelton. Report includes: "First Nations, Sustainable Forest Management, and the Prince George Timber Supply Area, An Annotated Biography" including project introduction, conclusions and appendices.


Series consists of published materials by the McGregor Model Forest Association, the Canadian Model Forest Network, Natural Resources Canada, and other forest research organisations. Series consists predominately of printed textual materials but also includes two CD-ROMs containing published works.

Projects & Research

Series consists of reports, proposals, and project and research materials ranging from 1994 to 2006. Series includes reports on Sustainable Forest Management, proposals for planned project phases, consultant reports, symposia notes and ephemera, secondary source research for projects and planning, and reports on work with First Nations communities.

Totem Pole in park at Prince Rupert, BC

Photograph depicts a totem pole standing on what appears to be a large wooden deck or boardwalk, view of the city in background.

Handwritten annotation on verso reads: "Totem pole in park in Prince Rupert".

Community gathering at Metlakatla Church during Synod

Large group of women, men, and children pose on front steps of church. Some men standing in back hold brass instruments. Bishop Ridley (with long beard) sits in front centre between W.H. Collison (on right) and his son W.E. Collison. Photograph depicts the first church built in Metlakatla, which was burned in a fire in 1901, and replaced in 1903.

Handwritten annotation below image reads: "A gathering of Missionaries and Indians in front of Metlakahtla Church During Synod"; on verso: "[Ven?] Arch Collison & Mrs Collison".

Mary John Potlatch, Terrace, B.C

Audio recording consists of an interview conducted by Bridget Moran with Mary John.

Audiocassette Summary

00’05” Bridget is interviewing Mary John who discusses a potlatch held at Stoney Creek that Bridget attended. Bridget asks about the talking stick and she asks Mary John to explain its significance. Mary explains there had been a naming ceremony about a year ago and that a woman named Maisie had changed clans from her mother to her father’s clan. Mary notes while this is unusual, her father’s only son had died and therefore requested that the daughter changed clans. At this ‘September potlatch’ therefore this woman had to change tables at the potlatch.

04’00” Mary explains the context of the September Potlatch. She notes that Maisie had hosted this potlatch to pay back for the gifts that had been provided for her from a year ago when she received a new name. They then discuss the amount of money that the host gave to the guests and the amount of money that is normally provided – there is no particular amount ‘whatever you wish’ Mary notes she had provided Maisie with a gift last year of $100 but that Maisie gave her back $200 – that is not required – there is no required amount

07’30” Mary explains that at a potlatch you are expected to bring a case or few bags of food

08’00” Mary discusses the type of food provided at a potlatch; it is traditional food not western food; Bridget notes there was caribou provided there. Mary explains that the host of a potlatch asks people to hunt for moose and deer meat in order to prepare for the food to be served. Bridget then talks about the food that was served and Mary notes it included also fish and beaver.

11’00” Bridget asks Mary to talk about the gifts given to her daughter Flo at the potlatch in exchange for a loan she provided to another woman whose husband had died a year before. Bridget notes it was a ‘touching’ moment.

12’00” Mary talks about the Priest ‘Father Brian’ who was at the potlatch. Four clans collected money and gave it to the priest for his work [missionary work?]

15’07” Mary explains the situation of Geraldine Thomas –that at the potlatch she was not seated before; that is she was not initiated before and so she was seated at the potlatch

15’57” Tape stops momentarily

16’09” Mary continues to talk about Geraldine and the potlatch events; the significance of the tapping of the talking stick; then she was seated and guests give her gifts. Then Mary talks about Ernie and her late daughter Helen who also wanted to cross their clan but that Mary ‘did not let her go’

20’00” Mary talks about the feelings of a child who gives up their clan and that it is like ‘giving up one of your children’ as Celina noted to Bridget at the event.

21’00” Mary talks about her son Ernie who crossed over to his father’s clan and that he was gifted at the potlatch

22’00” Bridget then notes that at this potlatch that the Frog Clan became host of the Grouse clan at this potlatch. Mary explains that the clan then had debts to pay at this potlatch.

26’00” Mary talks about the death of Stoney Creek members; she is unsure when there will be another potlatch in Stoney Creek.

28’00” Bridget notes that she did not understand the ceremony as it was in Carrier language; however Bridget notes it is a pity the white world doesn’t see potlatches as they are ‘so touching’

31’00” Mary explains that each clan takes care of the deceased family members and takes care of putting up the headstone

32’00” Tape ends abruptly

Mary John - Cheslatta

Audio recording consists of an interview conducted by Bridget Moran with Mary John.

Audiocassette Summary
Scope and Content: Tape consists of a recording of Bridget interviewing Mary John primarily about her visit to the former native village site of Cheslatta

Side 1
Interview in process

00’05” Bridget interviews Mary John, Mary is referring to Madeline her niece.

1’00” Bridget asks Mary what made her decide to go to Cheslatta – to see the site where she had lived. Bridget asks if it was a ‘rediscovery’ trip. Bridget asks if this is where the village was burned out and flooded out [by Kemano development] Mary talks about her son Ernie wanting to go there and create a territorial hunting ground. She talks about going there with her niece Madeline and Alex

8’40” Mary explains how they got to Cheslatta; the travel there was by van through Francois Lake and via logging roads; it took about hour and half drive

11’00” Mary explains it was not the village that had been flooded that they went to; not the original village; she notes there was a campsite set up for them but it was cold at night. There were people there from Stellaco, about 75 total. She describes making bannock on a stick over the fire ‘the real bannock’ for the youth – like an “Indian pizza” (she laughs)

16’00” Mary continues to talk about the activities that she did at Cheslatta; show the youth how to fish, spear fish, clean fish, cut in strips and smoke the fish. There was no smokehouse but they created a lean- to and smoked the fish. Mary also notes another day Mary and Madeline took the youth to the bush and talked to them about uses of trees –

22’00”-20’25” Mary describes the steps involved with showing the youth at the Cheslatta camp how to collect spruce in order to build a smoke house for smoking the fish

29’30” Mary discusses food that she prepared for the gathering for the people

31’00” Mary talks about the group visiting the old village Cheslatta after the gathering

Mary then leaves to attend to a crying baby [a great-grand-child?]; they greet the mother

33’00” Bridget refers to a group of kids she talked to at Kamloops about their book Stoney Creek Woman. Bridget tells Mary she has letters written to Mary John by several students who had read Bridget’s book that she wants to show her

36’00” They continue to talk about the former Cheslatta village and what the former village residents want to do about the village; Mary notes there are archaeologists working there. Mary states the people have not yet received compensation for being taken off their land. Bridget notes those people loss their sense of community

38’31” Mary remarks the people at Cheslatta “have a good chief” “very humble person”

39’40” Bridget asks Mary about the Lejac pilgrimage. Mary then talks about the pilgrimage that is held at Lejac and that she had just been there ‘on Sunday night’; she notes it is arranged by Celina; she notes there were Tache people there. Bridget asks if there are children buried at Lejac and Mary notes there are children and students buried there – about 15 to 20 buried there.

43’00” They briefly discuss if this was a rediscovery for the Cheslatta people at the event. Mary agrees; she notes she stayed there for 10 days; Bridget remarks it was similar to Mary’s former camp of what she had experienced at Wedgewood. They talk about Mary’s son Ernie and that he has in Bridget’s view ‘leadership qualities”

45’30” Bridget asks about getting a bannock recipe for a Senior’s cookbook. Mary begins to tell the recipe

Side 2
47’40” Mary continues to show Bridget how to make bannock

50’00” Mary briefly refers to the event at Cheslatta again

End of tape

Mary John

Audio recording consists of an interview conducted by Bridget Moran with Mary John.

Audiocassette Summary
Context: Tape recording is an interview between Bridget and Mary John in which Bridget initially asks Mary John about events after the inquest into Coreen Thomas’s death. Bridget notes also that she wants to provide an update on Mary John’s life 10 years after the inquest.

Side 1
00’05” Bridget asks Mary John about her role in the Coreen Thomas inquest. Mary thinks that she discovered Coreen’s death due to the ringing of the church bells [to announce a death]. She tries to recall the series of events leading up to her time being involved in getting an inquest. Recalls Sophie Thomas’ desire to have an inquest into her death

6’00” -10’00” She recalls that the [Indian] Homemakers Association became involved in attempting to get an inquest. She says ‘she was just tagging along with it …I was not a fighter” Bridget notes that Harry Rankin stayed at Helen’s house when he represented the Homemakers Association at the inquest. Bridget recalls the ‘marvellous’ dinner that was put on for them at the time of the inquest by Mary John and Helen. Mary John notes it was at the invitation of the Homemakers Association for the group to come to her house.

10’:00”-14’00” Bridget and Mary talk about follow-up to the inquest and Coreen’s family.

14’50”- 25’00” Mary talks about her involvement as well as others in the creation of the Elders Society after the death of Mary’s son due to drowning in 1978. The Society had workshops in an effort to revive their culture with the hope of having the younger generations take pride in their culture. One of the activities was the building of the Potlatch House in 1980 where they did traditional activities including tanning of hides.Talks about acquiring the land to build the potlatch house and having the Chief take care of getting the land from BCR; the Society cleared the land twice over to set up the house. Mary explains that the Society acquired funding of $93,000.00 from ARDA [?] to clear the land from the logs and build the house.

26’00”-30’00” Mary talks about a new project that the Society has to build 10 rental tourist cabins as a business for the youth to operate. Bridget suggests it could be similar to that at K’san. Mary also explains that there is a cook-house at the Potlatch House as well and that it has been used for community events, weddings, dinners, organizational events also.

Tape stops momentarily and starts again

30’05”- 36’00” Mary talks about the drowning of her son and finding of his body in 1978 as well as other tragedies that happened in the community which led to the creation of the Elders Society to assist the youth

36’30” -39’30” Mary talks about the joys of finally having her own house and the building of the house

39’32” -42’40” Mary talks about the organizations that she is involved in now. She talks about a film made in the community about social workers coming in the community to work with Elders to care for issues related to youth. She notes that ‘that’s when the ice broke’ and it made a difference.

43’00” She talks about a dinner that she holds every year for the police officers to thank them for the service they do for society

43’30” Talks about fishing at Fraser Lake

44’00” -46’00” Mary talks about her work now at her house to teach the youth about their culture: making of baskets, moccasins, tanning of hides

End of side 1

Side 2
46’30”-48’00” Mary continues to talk about the activities that she does with native youth to educate them about their culture

48’50” Bridget asks about whether the youth are involved in tree-planting and asks another woman in the room (Bernice?)

50’00” – 56’00” Bridget asks what her three wishes are for her people: better lives; more education for the young people to have better jobs; they need to get out to the white world and not be so isolated; she refers to when she worked in ‘the white world’ She talks about the isolation of the reserve and yet the protection that it offers to the people as well. Bridget and Mary talk about the reserve offering a way to protect the native culture. Bridget asks why it is important to protect their culture. Mary notes their culture is so important; she notes that other cultures like Japan and China haven’t lost their culture so why should the natives.

56’05” Mary notes that none of the grandchildren speak Carrier and the need to protect their culture and language when being surrounded by a white community. Refers to her grandson Fabian who is in the room

57’00” Bridget recalls a Fort St. James woman who tried to keep native kids out of white schools. She wanted them to be kept on the reserve so that they didn’t lose their culture. She talks about the fight by many to get their native status back – those whose one parent is not native

58’00” Mary talks about her worries for the young native people in the community who fear they have no future and who have no employment or education.

End of tape

Mary John [Tape] 9 & 10

Audio recording consists of an interview conducted by Bridget Moran with Mary John.

Audiocassette Summary

Context: Recording is the continuation of earlier sessions by Bridget and Mary John talking about her life – appears to continue on from the other tape sessions numbered to #8 [Accession # 2008.]

Side 1: “Mary John #9”
0’05” Bridget interviews Mary John and asks about Mary John’s grandmother who lived at the reserve at Fort George. Mary notes that her grandmother was sent back to Fort George and then to Stoney Creek after husband died. Her Grandmother remarried; she died in the 1950s. Mary talks about her grandmother’s marriage with Za (Jean) Paul – that was not an arranged marriage; her Grandmother “she had a hard life”

4’00” – 7’30” Mary Johns’ mother married Johnny Paul – not arranged; Mary notes that she was born in Fort George. Mary lived with her Grandmother Ann on reserve in Fort George. Mary then talks about her sister Bella – who married Mike Ketlo (sp?) and their children. She died of tuberculosis in the 1950s.

7’40” Bridget asks about the Mission School in Fort St. James – near the church “that is on Mission land” Which is where the village originally started. They talk about the church’s history briefly.

9’00”-14’00” Bridget asks Mary about her schooling at Lejac – Mary says they had reading, writing, arithmetic, penmanship and history. There was no science taught. Mary then describes the routine at Lejac. Doing chores and then breakfast at about 7:30 and then did cleaning chores in the dormitories. Then they attended their classes; then lunch, then played outside and then came back for sewing or embroidery, knitting and then back in classes until 4:00pm. Mary describes recreation – swimming, playing in the field, chores – pulling roots/stumps etc. Bridget talks about Joanne (Fiske?) thesis on the distinction between native boys and native girls’ activities and education at the residential school and that it enabled them to go to work in the hospitals and offices but that the farming education that was taught to the boys didn’t help them as there was no agriculture on the reserves. Mary notes she was ‘teachers pet’ as she had music lessons for singing. Mary notes she didn’t do anything in the kitchen but took mail to the post office and looking after the office for the Mother Superior. She feels she learned ‘the basics’ [but] then they ‘kicked you out at 16’

15’00” Bridget asks about the differences in disciplining methods of children – she notes that it is not part of Indian culture to spank children. She notes it is part of her husband’s sisters to discipline her children – not her or her husband’s duty

17’00” Mary talks about the residents at Stoney Creek who objected to school at Lejac because of harsh disciplinary methods used with their children

18’00” Mary talks briefly about the food at Lejac and speaks briefly to another unidentified woman [Sabrina?] in the room about food preparation [canning?]

19’50” Bridget asks about the Stoney Creek residents who wanted to have a school at the village in the 1950s and wanted their children to go to school there.

20’00” Mary speaks briefly about Father Coccola and that he did the negotiation about the move of the people from the reserve at Fort George to Shelley and about some compensation acquired by the residents. Bridget notes he ‘did not do a favour to the Indians’ – Mary notes that they were forced to leave ‘very illegal’

22’00” Mary speaks again about Father Coccola who could be ‘a very strict man’ but who took care of the people when they were sick and dying

23’00” Mary talks about another priest (unidentified) that she really liked who gave her a job c.1935 when she and her husband cleared land for Lejac and the priest treated them really well. She thinks he was from the Yukon as he had gold nuggets

25’00” Mary talks about her children going to Lejac in the 1950’s

26’00” Bridget talks about a social worker who came to Stoney Creek in c.1955 and Bridget was asked to come out by the Indian Agent to investigate what was the issue. This social worker was scared of being on the reserve; Mary thinks this woman had marital problems and drank a lot

28’00” Mary talks about the Day school operating c.1951 for a short time and the kids were bussed back and forth; other kids ‘orphans’ went to Lejac (lived there)

Tape is poor after this; noise with squeals and recording is faster

29’00” Mary talks about her children (Helen and the boys) not liking Lejac. She notes that one of the boys didn’t like it ‘but didn’t complain’ about it. She notes that ‘no one would talk about it’ “the whole village would be silent” when they left; and the children would be crying.

30’00”-33’00” Bridget asks Mary to discuss her wedding in more detail – Bridget notes that she already has on tape about the wedding night itself but asks for more information about the wedding day. Mary begins to talk about the wedding; there was a Mass, the guests and there was a band….

Tape is unintelligible after this; recording is broken up with interference and then there is no recording End of side 1

Side 2 “Mary John #10”
This side of the cassette has no recording

Mary John [Tape] 7 & 8

Audio recording consists of an interview conducted by Bridget Moran with Mary John.

Audiocassette Summary

Side 1
0’02” Improvements within the Department of Indian Affairs; she notes that Indian Affairs was tricking the band. The Indian Agent took a logging contract away from Mary John’s son Ernie because he refused to pay the rate that they wanted in stumpage fees

4’00” Mary John recalls when the community started to speak up against Department of Indian Affairs about 1942. She recalls the Elders Society and the Indian Homemakers Association. She explains that the Elders Society supports the preservation of the Indian culture and arts/crafts; which involves set up of activities including summer camps; showing youths how to use fishing and hunting tools and recreation tools. Bridget asks about Elders involved in the Society.

13’00” Mary talks about teaching Indian language at the school for the youths and also teaching previously in the village for the children yet none of the children continue to speak their language today. But now with parents speaking at home it’s difficult to have them continue to speak their language

16’00” Bridget asks Mary to recall the time when she was named Citizen of the Year in Vanderhoof in 1978. Mary shows Bridget the award and recalls that they ‘had a big dinner’ for her. Mary notes it was a surprise, Mrs. Campbell brought her there – Mary John recalls that she didn’t have a speech planned

19’00” Bridget asks her to explain about the tanning of hides. Mary explains the process from the time of the shooting of the moose; fleshing and scraping of the hide. She explains how to use the knife on the hide so you can see the tissues of the skin. Then Mary turns over the hide to the hair side and shaves off the hair on the hide and then shows Bridget how it is scraped. They discuss the blade and how it is sharp. She explains it is then washed many times to clean the blood off and then it is stretched. She explains it is then spread with oil/ possibly fish oil – the whole hide is oiled up and then left about a week to dry. Then once dry you use another scraper to ensure it is soft. She notes it is a lot of hard work and time to complete. They then talk about smoking of the hides and Mary shows Bridget hides that she had made herself. Mary explains that the Elders have a class for the youths to show them how to tan hides.

29’00” Bridget asks Mary about the last potlatch held. Mary explains what a potlatch is and when it is viewed as a pay-out. A potlatch is thrown to pay back another clan for a service or a kindness that was done to them. She talks about potlatches for deceased persons; and how clans host potlatches. She talks about the foods prepared at a potlatch. Mary recalls “it can cost thousands of dollars” and notes plans in progress for the next potlatch to be held in August in Stoney Creek.

36’00” Recalls when potlatches were made illegal – recalls gifts she received years before at potlatches and ‘that someone benefits from it’ Years ago hides and dried goods were given out. Potlatches started up again in about 1934 and they held a potlatch for her mother when she died.

40’00” Mary explains there are two clans at Stoney Creek – the Frog and the Grouse; she explains that you don’t marry within your own clan.

45’00” Recalls the death of some of her relatives

End of Side 1

Side 2
45’02” Mary talks about her siblings who are still alive

48’00” Talks about the preparation and setting of nets in canoes for fishing

52’00” notes people like to be called native – not Indian

52’30” Bridget asks Mary what she thinks that has changed that is good? She thinks that the good things are better homes, electricity, cars, education, transportation and better roads. She fears there isn’t as much closeness as there was years ago among families – now people sit at home and watch TV. “People use to do things together – they don’t anymore.” Mary points out that another good thing is that people now get pensions.

56’00 Mary John speaks about her sewing business that she now has and the making of mukluks and moccasins

57’00 Bridget recalls bringing her Mother to Stoney Creek Reserve c.1954 and her mother noting her poor life in Ireland and recalling the poor people she saw on the reserve at that time and telling Bridget she had to help those people

59’00 they both refer to poor services done by the Department of Indian Affairs in the 1950s

End of tape

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